This short overview is an amendment to the article Drinking Vessels of Viking Norway. It contains specimens of a specific type of wooden cups and bowls that has the brim reinforced with metal clasps. From the distribution, it is clear such a tableware was quite popular in Early Medieval Northern and Eastern Europe. They can be also compared with buckets and horns that are frequently covered in copper-alloy metals or silver.
Reconstructions of Early Medieval bucket and horn covered in metal.
Roland Williamson, Ivan Minakov.
In the catalogue, I will describe the known pieces from 9th – 11th century Europe. If there are some that are missing, let me know.
Haralds saga Sigurðarsonar 24 Let’s open the article with a literary mention that comes from Saga of Haraldr Sigurðarson. The saga mentions a noble gift – a bowl made of maple, with gilded silver rim and gilded silvered handle, full of silver coins:
“At the feast, king Haraldr gave Steigar-Þóri a maple bowl; it had a rim of silver and a silver handle, both gilded, and it was filled with burned silver pennies.” (Haraldr konungr gaf Steigarþóri at veizlunni mösurbolla; hann var gyrðr með silfri, ok silfrhadda yfir, ok gylt hvártveggja, ok fullr upp af skírum silfrpenningum).
Bj 11A, Birka, Sweden
The grave Bj 11 revealed silver mounts that could originate from a wooden vessel or a plate (Arbman 1940: Taf. 216.13; Arbman 1943: 2-4, Abb. 108; Lindeberg 1984: 243). The mounts were found around a clay vessel that was used as an urn. As the clay vessel was quite big, circa 18 cm in diameter, the only way how mounts could be found all around the vessel is the presumption that the wooden vessel was quite wide and open and was placed under or on top of the urn. The most prominent mount is a circular fitting, 2 cm wide, fastened with 4 rivets and decorated with circles. There are also at least 7 silver clasps (size 13 × 11 mm), some decorated with punched circles, fastened with 2-3 rivets. Their profile suggests they truly come from a wooden dish. The closest analogy of this piece comes from the grave 459 in Timerevo.
Silver fittings of a vessel from Bj 11A, Birka. Arbman 1940: Taf. 216.13.
Bj 523, Birka, Sweden
In the “female” grave Bj 523, two identical vessels were found, from which only one was reasonably preserved, though also badly damaged (Arbman 1940: Taf. 214; Arbman 1943: 157-160, Abb. 108; Lindeberg 1984: 242). The bowls were put together. The thickness of the wood was 4 mm. The outer side of better preserved bowl carried turning traces. The edge is covered with U-shaped square silver clamps of the size 7 × 7 mm at interval of 15 mm. Clamps are fastened by single rivets. The current diameter of the bowl is 112 mm. One of the vessels had a short horizontal handle at the level of the edge. The handle was decorated with a shield-shaped fitting of the size 24 × 15 mm, which was fastened with four rivets.
Remains of the vessels from Bj 523. Arbman 1940: Taf. 214.
Drawn reconstruction of the vessels from Bj 523, Birka. The drawing does not reflect the presence of a short handle. Arbman 1943: Abb. 108.
Bj 544, Birka, Sweden
Badly damaged fragments of a wooden vessel were found in the “male” grave Bj 544 (Arbman 1940: Taf. 215.3; Arbman 1943: 170-1; Lindeberg 1984: 242-3). Based on the description by Arbman (1943: 171), we can guess the vessel had a short triangle horizontal handle at the level of the edge (similar to what we know from Årby and Haithabu). The thickness of the wood was 4 mm. The outer side of the vessel carries turning traces. The edge of the vessel was decorated with a fitting made of silver, size 19 × 17 mm. The fitting is riveted by two riveted and is decorated with punched triangles and lines of dots.
Remains of the vessel from Bj 544, Birka. Arbman 1940: Taf. 215.3.
Bj 711A, Birka, Sweden
In the grave Bj 711A, a copper alloy fitting of a small vessel was found (Arbman 1940: Taf. 216.5; Arbman 1943: 246; Lindeberg 1984: 243). Arbman notes the wood was still preserved at the time of the excavation. The edge of vessel is 5 mm thick and profiled. The fitting measures 32 × 28 mm and is not complete. The fitting was attached with two rivets. The sex of the deceased person in the grave is not known.
The vessel from Bj 885 was decorated with four copper alloy clasps (Arbman 1943: 344; Lindeberg 1984: 242-3). Today, nothing but rivets can be seen. The sex of the deceased person in the grave is not known.
Bj 886, Birka, Sweden
In the “male” grave Bj 866, fragments of a stunning vessel was found (Arbman 1940: Taf. 216.7-12; Arbman 1943: 344-6; Lindeberg 1984: 242). What we know about the vessel is that it was more than 5 cm high, 7 mm thick and it had a small horizontal handle. The handle was covered with an oval mount (original size about 33 × 12 mm) with pressed ornament . The mount was riveted to the handle with three rows of rivets. At least 4 clasps are riveted to the profiled edge; the complete fittings measures 16 × 21 mm and are fastened by two rows of rivets. Two clasps are decorated with nothing but lines, the other two are decorated with pressed decoration that is similat to handle mount. The pressed clasps are decorated with pearl edges too. There is one more fitting, 5 cm long sheet which is a repair of a broken edge of the vessel. The sheet is riveted with three rows of rivets.
The material for the handle mount and clasps is gilded silver. Rivets used for this mounts are made of copper alloy and their heads are waved. The repair sheet is said to be silver riveted with undecorated copper alloy pins.
Fragments of a vessel from Bj 886, Birka. Arbman 1940: Taf. 216.7-12.
Bj 964, Birka, Sweden
A copper alloy fitting of a vessel was found in the “female” burial Bj 964 (Arbman 1940: Taf. 216.4; Arbman 1943: 389; Lindeberg 1984: 242-3). Arbman notes the wood was still preserved at the time of the excavation. The edge of vessel is 5 mm thick and profiled. The fitting measures 36 × 15 mm and was attached with four rivets.
Fragments of a vessel from Bj 964, Birka. Arbman 1940: Taf. 216.4.
Bj 987, Birka, Sweden
Two copper alloy fittings of a vessel were found in the “female” burial Bj 987 (Arbman 1940: Taf. 216.6; Arbman 1943: 413-5; Lindeberg 1984: 242-3). The fittings measure 13 × 27 mm and were fastened with 4 rivets. There are decorating border lines around the fittings. The edge was of the vessel was 4 mm thick.
Fragments of a vessel from Bj 987, Birka. Arbman 1940: Taf. 216.6.
C-306, Gnezdovo, Russia
A complete vessel – a small cup – decorated with silver clasps was found in the “female” grave C-306 (Avdusin – Puškina 1988: 23-4, Fig. 4.10). Based on the available drawing, we can say that the cup measured around 7 cm across the opening. The clasps were fastened with two rivets.
A vessel from the grave C-306 in Gnezdovo. Avdusin – Puškina 1988: Fig. 4.10.
Graves 7 and 74, Gnezdovo, Russia
According to Spitsyn (1905: 15), there were two fittings in the graves 7 and 74 (according to S. I. Sergeev). These fittings could come from a wooden vessel or a horn.
2 Velyka Zhytomyrska Street, Kyiv, Ukraine
During the excavation at 2 Velyka Zhytomyrska in Kyiv, the historical center of the city, heart-shaped silver mounts from a vessel were found (personal communication with Oleksii Malev). The find was excavated by Ya. E. Borovsky in 1988 and can be dated to 10th century.
Metal fittings from 2 Velyka Zhytomyrska Street, Kyiv. Photo by Oleksii Malev.
A reproduction of the find from Kyiv. Made by Oleksii Malev.
Chamber grave 1, Pskov, Russia
Inside the chamber grave 2 in Pskov, a long silver clamp was found. It is interpreted as a fitting coming from a vessel (Yakovleva 2015: 70, Cat. no. 25). The clamp is decorated with punched decoration and contains wood inside.
Yakovleva 2015: 70, Cat. no. 25.
Chamber grave 7, Pskov, Russia Northwestward of the coffin of the girl in Pskov chamber grave 7, there were objects interpreted as fragments of a wooden bowl (Ershova 2015: 322, Рис. 17, Каталог 6). The diameter of the bowl is described to be 9 cm. There are no preserved wood in the burial. The metal elements consist of 5 gilded silver sub-triangular clasps, fragments of silver narrow strip clasps, a square silver-plated fitting (size 22 × 22 mm) with a round hole in the center (8 mm in diameter) and an irregular semicircular plate with raised sides along the edge, decorated with floral ornaments in niello, probably a handle cover.
Fragments of a bowl from Chamber grave 7, Pskov. Ershova 2015: Каталог 6.
An X-ray of the bown in situ. Ershova 2015: 322, Рис. 17.
Graves 100, 118, 285, 457, Timerevo, Russia
Fechner and Nedoshivina (1987: 74) inform that bronze mounts from vessels were found in four graves of Timerevo – 100, 118, 285, 457. Unfortunately, I was not able to find further details on these finds.
Grave 459, Timerevo, Russia
The grave 459 in Timerevo contained fragments of a wooden vessel that was decorated with simple metal clasps along the brim (Fechner – Nedoshivina 1987: 74-5, Рис. 6.2-6). At the bottom of the vessel, there was a circular fitting, fastened with 7 rivets. The circular fitting was inscribed. The closest analogy of the vessel is Bj 11A in Birka.
Remnants of a vessel from grave 459, Timerevo. Fechner – Nedoshivina 1987: Рис. 6.2-6
Grave 32, Tiszakürt ‒ Sziki-Kisföldek, Hungary
In 2019, Zágorhidi Czigány et al. published a brilliant article that shows a cracked bowl repaired with clasps and wire. The bowl was found in the grave 32 in Tiszakürt ‒ Sziki-Kisföldek, which is dated to 10th century. The closest analogy comes from tomb no. 20 in Dargavs, North Ossetia–Alania, Russia.
The recontruction of the edge of the bowl, Grave 32, Tiszakürt ‒ Sziki-Kisföldek, Hungary. Zágorhidi Czigány et al. 2019: 6. kép, 4-6.
The fragments of bowl, Grave 32, Tiszakürt ‒ Sziki-Kisföldek, Hungary. Zágorhidi Czigány et al. 2019: 1. kép.
Grave 30, Priekules Ģūģeru, Latvia
In 1988, a spectacular grave 30 was found in Latvian Priekules Ģūģeru. The grave, dated to 1st half of 11th century, contained a full warrior gear, textiles, trading equipment, jewellery and a cup (Apala – Zariņa 1991). The wooden cup has diameter of 100-120 mm and is 38 mm high. It is decorated with copper alloy plate that is 15 mm high (Apala – Zariņa 1991: 18, 5. att). The plate is continuous and goes all around the edge. The lower edge is toothed. The bowl seems to be repaired by wires.
The bowl from Priekules Ģūģeru. Apala – Zariņa 1991: 5. att, B.
Photo of the bowl, taken by Andrius Bitaitis.
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Saga of Haraldr Sigurðarson (Haralds saga Sigurðarsonar) = Haralds saga Sigurðarsonar. Edited by N. Linder an H. A. Haggson. In: Heimskringla Snorra Sturlusonar III, Uppsala 1872. Online.
Apala, Z. – Zariņa, A. (1991). Dižciltīga latgaļa apbedījums Ģūģeru kapulaukā. In: Latvijas Vēstures Institūta Žurnāls, Nr. 1, 11-29.
Arbman, Holger (1940–1943). Birka I. Die Gräber. Text (1943), Tafeln (1940), Stockholm.
Avdusin, D. A. – Puškina, T. A. (1988). Three Chamber Graves at Gniozdovo. (Tre kammergraver fra Gniozdovo). In: Fornvännen 83, Stockholm, 20-33.
Ershova 2015 = Ершова, Т. Е. (2015). Камерное погребение 7 // Древнерусский некрополь Пскова X – начала XI в.: В 2 т. Т. 2. Камерные погребения древнего Пскова X в. (по материалам археологических раскопок 2003 – 2009 гг. у Старовознесенского монастыря), СПб., стр. 309–346.
Fechner – Nedoshivina 1987 = Фехнер, М.В. – Недошивина, Н. Г. (1987) Этнокультурная характеристика Тимеревского могильника по материалам погребального инвентаря // СА 1987, 2, 70-89.
Lindeberg, Inga (1984). Holzschalen, Holzdosen und Beschläge zu derartigen Holzobjekten. In: Arwidsson, Greta (Ed.). Birka II:1. Systematische Analysen der Gräberfunde, Stockholm, 242–244.
Spitsyn 1905 = Спицын, А. А. (1905). Гнездовские курганы из раскопок С.И. Сергеева // ИАК 15, 6-74.
Yakovleva 2015 = Яковлева, Е. А. Камерное погребение 1 // Древнерусский некрополь Пскова X – начала XI в.: В 2 т. Т. 2. Камерные погребения древнего Пскова X в. (по материалам археологических раскопок 2003 – 2009 гг. у Старовознесенского монастыря), СПб., 2015, стр. 28–83.
Zágorhidi Czigány, Bertalan ‒ Kenéz, Árpád ‒ Türk, Attila (2019). Tiszakürt‒Sziki-Kisföldek 32. objektum honfoglalás kori sír. Adatok a 10. századi hurkos végű bronzdrótok érékeléséhez, valamint a lovaglóostorok és fémszerelékes faedények elkülönítéséhez a korszak hagyatékában. In: „Hadak útján” A népvándorláskor fiatal kutatóinak XXIX. konferenciája – 29th Conference of Young Scholars on the Migration Period, Budapest, 59-67.
Decorated vessels made by Dmitry Hramtsov (Truin Stenja).
Thanks to Michael Caralps Robinson,
whose persistence has no limits.
rather than a complete list of Norwegian drinking vessels of Viking Age, this short article is a summary of types of small personal drinking vessels and the sources we can use for learning more. Before making any step further, I have to stress that we can divide between everyday drinking occassions and highly developed drinking culture of the Viking Age (for example Andersen – Pajung 2014; Callmer – Rosengren 1997; Rundkvist 2011), that included strict rules about seating plan, the amount of consumed beverage and ceremonies. We have a massive textual evidence for drinking, plus a huge corpus of finds has been preserved. At this place, I will not discuss barrels, buckets, tubes, vats, bowl-shaped ladles, sieves, metal and steatite bowls, jugs, cauldrons, bottles etc, as some of them were already described in a separate article called The Period Transport of Liquids. My primary goal is provide sources for the most popular vessels used by reenactors; the overview is dedicated to anybody who wishes to have accurate personal tableware for both everyday life and feasts – cups, horns and beakers – bearing in mind that these are only a tiny fraction of the living reality that is gone for 1000 years.
Types of drinking vessels
In Early Medieval period, elite circle wanted to be presented as owners of luxurious items made of metal or glass, including the cups. Polish chronicle of Gallus Anonymus refers about golden and silver tableware, a mention that is repeated several times and it is explicitly said that during splendid feasts, there was no wooden tableware (Gallus Anonymus, Deeds of the Princes of the Poles I:6). The same picture is portrayed by Anglo-Saxon iconography, for example manuscript MS Cotton Tiberius C VI (1042-1079). Even though luxurious cups were concentrated in hands of elites, we can understand mentions and pictures as period propaganda. As is obvious from many Early Medieval graves, wooden tableware was also frequently associated with elites.
Lathed cups without handles
Simple wooden cups were probably the most common examples that were used in the Viking Age (Petersen 1951: 402). Due to their organic composition, the majority decayed without any traces. Still, we have some preserved pieces coming from well-known mounds of Oseberg and Gokstad. In Oseberg mound, at least 8 cups or their fragments were found (Grieg 1928: 148-150, 194-196, Fig. 91, 127, 128, 130), but only four are complete. The first one – C55000:167 – is 64 mm high and the maximal diameter is 127 mm (112 mm across the mouth). The second one (C55000:97) is lathed of a piece of hard wood and the diameter is circa 100 mm (80 mm across the mouth); it is also reinforced with an iron band, that goes from inside to outside and is probably a patch. Last two – C55000:84 and C55000:91 – are 40 and 50 mm high and have mouth diameter of 60-70 and 80 mm. These last two were filled with corn in the grave. According to Nicolaysen (1882: 45), there were 4 round cups made of foliferous tree found in Gokstad – besides the fact cups are very shrunk and varying in size, he does not mention any further detail nor picture. The biggest comparable material was found in Haithabu, counting 14 cups that vary between 48-107 mm in height and 76-100 mm in diameter (Westphal 2007: 35, Taf. 10).
The first complete cup from Oseberg mound. Source: Grieg 1928: Fig. 91, UNIMUS C55000:167.
The second complete cup from Oseberg mound. Source: Grieg 1928: Fig. 130, UNIMUS C55000:97.
The third complete cup from Oseberg mound. Source: Grieg 1928: Fig. 127, UNIMUS C55000:84.
The fourth complete cup from Oseberg mound. Source: Grieg 1928: Fig. 128, UNIMUS C55000:91.
Cups from Haithabu. Source: Westphal 2007: 35, Taf. 10.
Cups with handles
In Norwegian graves of Voll and Oseberg, 6 wooden scoops were found (Grieg 1928: 142–146). However, there are also some smaller kuksa-like cups with more decent handles in Oseberg and Gokstad, which could be interpreted as cups – especially because of presence of flat bottom and absence of a hook at the end of the handle. In Gokstad, two examples of the same design were found – C10413 (Nicolaysen 1882: 45, Pl. IX:7), while there was only one fragmentary piece in Oseberg (Grieg 1928: 149-150; Petersen 1951: 405-406). According to Petersen (1951: 406), the cup from Gokstad is circa 16 cm long. There are many similar examples in Haithabu, showing we are dealing with a widespread group of items (Westphal 2007: 34-36, Taf. 3-11).
An illustration of cups from Gokstad. Source: Nicolaysen 1882: Pl. IX:7.
Cups with handles from Haithabu. Source: Westphal 2007: 35, Taf. 3, 4, 7, 10, 11.
Ceramic cups After the Migration Period, pottery finds are on decline in Norway (Petersen 1951: 380); Petersen mapped only 48 pottery finds from Late Iron Age. Some scholars even claim that Norway did not have their own production of ceramic in the period (Lüdtke – Schietzel 2001: 25) and it was replaced by steatite and iron on a massive scale (Petersen 1951: 380). The biggest ceramic material in Norway was found in the trading center of Kaupang (Hougen 1993). Complete ceramic cups from Viking Age Norway are rather rare and they are almost always undecorated (Hougen 1993: 9).
A selection of ceramic cups. Source: Petersen 1951: 383.
According to Petersen (1951: 354-356), there are at least 12 steatite vessels with less than 15 cm and more than 5-6 cm in diameter and are without traces of usual iron fitting for hanging. Smaller vessels can be understood as miniatures, crucibles or other tools. It is also possible that these 12 vessels are parts of forging equipment or are storage vessels, but we cannot exclude the possibility they are drinking cups.
Steatite vessel from Gjestad (C17783). Source: Petersen 1951: 355.
Steatite vessel from “Hafsol” (B4622). Source: UNIMUS B4622.
Steatite vessel from an unknown site (B8941). Source: UNIMUS B8941.
Drinking cow and aurochs horns are probably the most symbolical and the best known vessels of the Viking Age. They also occur in written sources during feasts and ceremonies and are depicted in iconography. It is beyond any doubt that such a vessel had a strict decorum of how, when and by whom it could be used. For example, some feasts could have the rule of drekka tvimenning (a pair of drinkers share a common horn), while the passing and drinking out of the ruler’s horn could be understood as an oath-swearing process, both situations indicate that horns were used at feasts in order to maintain important social bonds. Horns are “thought to have been an important piece of household equipment in societies where feasting and formal entertainment played a major role [(…). In poems, horns are used for drinking mead and wine, while they are used for beer in sagas as well.] A primary function of these prestige items was to enable their owners to demonstrate status by providing unlimited hospitality, an echo of the hospitality obligations mandated by the laws” (Heen-Pettersen2014).
According to Petersen (1951: 396-400), 24 horns are known in Norway (I was forced to correct Mr. Petersen’s information about the horns from Voll, which is not correct). 5 horns were simple and undecorated, 4 horns were decorated with a mouth fitting, 14 horn were decorated with a terminal and just 2 horns were decorated with both mouth fittings and terminals. The terminals have a form of beast head (8 ex.), ball (4 ex.), ring for hanging (1 ex.) and cylinder (1 ex.). At least one horn (T1184) had two small copper alloy eyelets for hanging mounted on the body of the horn, while some horns are found with suspension chains. Heen-Pettersen (2014) mentions 7 new finds of horns with metal mounts, and she interprets all the decorated horns as Insular imports.
Metal fittings mounted on a modern horn, Gjønnes (C20163). Source: UNIMUS C20163.
Metal fittings of a drinking horn, Venjum (B7731). Source: UNIMUS B7731.
Drinking horn from Voll (T1184). Source: UNIMUS T1184.
Glass beakers The last big group of vessels are glass beakers, probably the most prestigious and luxurious vessels we can meet in Viking Age Norway. Petersen (1951: 400-402) mentions only 11 glass vessels finds from Late Iron Age, which is not surprising, as they were probably imported from the Continent or Britain; we have only limited traces of local glassworking in Norway (Gaut 2011: 174-175). Some glass vessels were used for a very long time : the beaker from Borre mound (ca. 900) comes from 7th or 8th century (Petersen 1951: 401). Two almost complete beakers were found for example in the grave from Hopperstad (B4511). A lot of variously coloured glass were found in Kaupang, that can be categorized as funnel beakers, reticella-decorated beakers and small jars (Gaut 2007; Gaut 2011).
A reconstruction of the beaker from Borre, C1801. Source: Myhre – Gansum 2003: 20.
Two glass beakers from Hopperstad, B4511. Source: UNIMUS B4511.
Reconstructed beakers found in Kaupang. Source: Gaut 2011: Fig. 9.13, 9.14, 9.16, 9.20, 9.21.
Hypothetic cup types To make the list complete, we have to mention various metal and organic materials that could be used for cups. While there are number of copper alloy vessels in Norway (Petersen 1951: 384-396), they were used as cauldrons, scoops, hanging and table bowls and handwashing basins. As far as I know, there is no Norwegian copper alloy vessel that could be interpreted as cup. On the other hand, Continental or Insular silver cups could be rarely used in Norway in the same way they were used in Denmark (Wamers 1985: Taf. 47:4; Wamers 2005: Kat. 43-44).
As was told above, organic cups were definitely the most common, but they occur rarely because of decomposition. They could include some extraordinary materials like birch bark, antler or fungus. In the grave from Kyrkhus, four double-layered birch bark fragments were found (S2584n). They are interpreted as remnants of a cup or a bowl. Based on the size of the preserved fragments – 34×34 mm, 37×33 mm, 35×31 mm and 52×44 mm – both options are possible. We cannot exclude a box as a possible function. Birch bark had wide scale of application, so the presence of birch bark cups would not be surprising. In the same grave, there are fragments of what was interpreted as antler or bone cup; unfortunately we do not know any closer detail. Cups made of polypore could be also possible, as we know polypore bowl from Voll (T1185).
In this short overview, I tried to mention the most important find types and literature that describes them. At the end of it, I would like to give some recommendations. As you can notice, ceramic cups were somethig special in Norway, and I hope this article will help to get rid of their dominance in recent reenactment. Moreover, all the wooden, steatite, horn and glass pieces are aesthetic to an extent – some are richly decorated, others have just a simple decorating line in the center or at the mouth level. The period tableware was not as crude as we usually see at the events. Cups were owned by civilized people of advanced culture; a culture that should be reconstructed as well. Usage of cups was nuanced, and it is our goal to represent it in a most colourful and accurate way.
Gallus Anonymus: Deeds of the Princes of the Poles = Gallus Anonymus: Kronika a činy polských knížat a vládců. Traslated: Josef Förster, Praha 2009.
Andersen, Kasper H. – Pajung, Stefan (2014) (eds.). Drikkekultur i middelalderen, Århus.
Callmer, Johan – Rosengren, Erik (1997) (eds). ”…gick Grendel att söka det höga huset…” Arkeologiska källor till aristokratiska miljöer i Skandinavien under yngre järnålder. Rapport från ett seminarium i Falkenberg 16–17 november 1995, Halmstad.
Gaut, Bjarne (2007). Vessel Glass from Kaupang: A Contextual and Social Analysis. In: Norwegian Archaeological Review 40:1, 26-41.
Gaut, Bjarne (2011). Vessel Glass and Evidence of Glasswoking. In: Skre, Dagfinn (ed.). Things from the Town. Artefacts and Inhabitants in Viking-age Kaupang. Kaupang Excavation Project Publication series, vol. 3., Århus, 169-261.
Grieg, Sigurd (1928). Osebergfunnet II : Kongsgaarden, Oslo.
Heen-Pettersen, A. M. (2014). Insular artefacts from Viking-Age burials from mid-Norway. A review of contact between Trøndelag and Britain and Ireland, Internet Archaeology 38.
Available at: http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue38/heenpettersen_index.html
Hougen , Ellen-Karine (1993). Kaupangfunnene bind IIIB. Bosetningsområdets keramikk, Oslo.
Lüdtke, Hartwig – Schietzel, Kurt (2001) (eds.). Handbuch zur mittelalterlichen Keramik in Nordeuropa (Vol. 1-3), Neumünster.
Rundkvist, Martin (2011). Mead-halls of the Eastern Geats: Elite Settlements and Political Geography AD 375-1000 in Ösergötland, Sweden, Stockholm.
Myhre, Bjørn – Gansum, Terje (2003). Skipshaugen 900 e. Kr. : Borrefunnet 1852-2002, Borre.
Nicolaysen, Nicolay (1882). Langskibet fra Gokstad ved Sandefjord = The Viking-ship discovered at Gokstad in Norway, Kristiania.
Petersen, Jan (1951). Vikingetidens redskaper, Oslo.
Wamers, Egon (1985). Insularer Metallschmuck in wikingerzeitlichen Gräbern Nordeuropa, Neumünster.
Wamers, Egon (2005). Die Macht des Silbers. Karolingische Schätze im Norden, Regensburg.