9th-11th century spearheads longer than 50 cm

Introduction

It would be difficult to find a weapon that would be as important in the past and now overlooked as the spear. The spear of the Early Middle Ages served as the primary formation weapon and, together with the shield and side weapon (axe, sword or another), was the standard armament. Contrary to popular belief, Early medieval men carried entire arsenal of weapons into wars and deployed them as needed; spears played a huge role in mass clashes, especially in their early stages.

In the article presented below, we decided to describe a group of the most extraordinary 9th-11th century spears, which are over 50 cm long. This length criterion was chosen for three main reasons:

  • due to the frequency of spears in the monitored period (higher units of thousands) it is necessary to set a certain limit, thanks to which the topic will be graspable. Although it is largely an artificial border, it turns out that the quantity difference between spears with a length of 40-49.99 and 50-59.99 cm can be five to ten times higher.

  • it is more than half the length of the sword and the length exceeding the dimensions of long knives of the same period.

  • numerous spears with a length of over 50 cm in complete condition with a shaft could easily exceed the weight of 1 kg. This weight shift makes the spear a two-handed weapon, which may not apply to shorter pieces. The most extreme group of spears in size can help clarify the laws that apply to smaller and more numerous specimens.

The attached catalog contains at least 276 spears, which is a surprisingly high number, especially if we take into account the fact that it is approximately 1% of all weapons originally produced. With such high numbers, it is evident that very long spears had a practical application. We do not include tang spears to the catalog, which rarely exceed the limit of 50 cm (Atgāzis 2019: 44; Lehtosalo-Hilander 1982b: 30-1, Fig. 9.10), but they are important for the discussion of the function of socket variants. There is no doubt that the spears included in the catalog are top products with demanding production and easy-to-read symbolism. The exclusive position of the long spears is evidenced not only by the composition of grave inventories, often including swords, axes, shields and equestrian equipment, but also by the methods of production and decoration used. A supporting argument is, for example, the 49.5 cm long spearhead, which was chosen for the production of the so-called Spear of Destiny of Vienna (Die Heilige Lanze), which is a deliberately made relic probably from the 10th century (Paulsen 1969Schulze-Dörrlamm 2011).

During the preparation of the catalog, we got acquainted with archaeological material from various European regions. A secondary result of this search is an approximate estimate of the number of pieces in different size levels. Based on this estimate, spearheads with a length of 20-39.99 cm are by far the most common, however, spears with a length of over 40 cm form a significant group. The numbers of spears are intentionally increased, because there is no doubt that there is a considerable amount of unpublished material in the archives of French and German museums.

  • 20-29,99 cm : 2000-5000 pieces (?)

  • 30-39,99 cm : 2000-5000 pieces (?)

  • 40-49,99 cm : 1000-2000 pieces (?)

  • 50-59,99 cm : 220-350 pieces

  • 60-69,99 cm : > 50 pieces

  • 70-79,99 cm : > 10 pieces

Comparison of a 72 cm long spear with a sword blade. Maciej Tomaszczyk, Officina ferraria.


Anatomical spear principles

The study of very long spearheads provides many insights that may have interesting and important implications for the study of other groups of subjects, such as swords, and ultimately help shape our view of how the war was run in the Early Middle Ages. It should be emphasized at the outset that spears exceeding 50 cm have a very long continuity at least since the Iron Age (Vouga 1885: 18-20) and can be easily traced even in the period immediately preceding the 9th century (eg Kazakevičius 1988: 41; Kovács 1980: 98; Tautavičius 1996: 130; Westphal 2002: 255; Ypey 1982: 253). However, it is typical that part of continental production during the 8th century deliberately turned to more massive spearheads with a wider neck and socket, which weigh up to 2 kg (for evolution, see Westphal 2002: 255-263). This production of extremely massive tips persists until the period we follow in this article.

When mapping very long spearheads, we were able to describe three essential anatomical principles that have not yet been reported in the literature known to us. In general, it can be said that these principles apply to spears with a length exceeding 40 cm. They are:

  • the ratio of the narrowest part of the neck from the front view to the total length of the spearhead.
    For the pieces we include, there is a ratio of 1:14.52 – 1:59.4; that is, 14.52-59.4 cm of the spearhead per 1 cm width of the neck. This figure is important because it predefines the practical use of spears: spears with a massive neck (closer to 1:1 ratio) are significantly heavier and better suited for heavy cuts, while spears with a thin neck are very light and designed primarily to stabbing. Of course, even spears with a thin neck can functionally cut, but with strong blows there is a risk of bending the tip in the neck part or breaking the shaft; weak cuts and slices on unprotected surfaces are sustainable for all spearheads. The limit from which the tips can be described as capable of heavy cuts (with both hands) can be set around a ratio of 1:27. Spears with necks 1:14 – 1:27 are so massive that they can be fully used for chopping, similar to later glaives or Asian naginates. The following graph shows that the spearheads tend to be significantly heavier (up to 1.8 kg) after crossing the 1:27 limit.

Graph showing the ratio of the narrowest part of the neck to the total length. Includes only well-measured pieces.
Orange line = type I spearheads, blue line = type II spearheads.

  • the ratio of socket diameter to total length.
    For the pieces we include, there is a ratio of 1:11.35 – 1:28.32; that is, 11.35-28.32 cm of the spearhead per 1 cm width of the socket. As in the previous case, this ratio determines the actual use of a particular weapon: spears with a wider sockets are significantly heavier and better suited for heavy cuts, while narrower sockets are combined with lighter, primarily stabbing spearheads. In this case, a ratio close to 1:17 and a sleeve diameter of at least 3 cm can be marked as the limit where we can already talk about a cutting spear. The following graph shows that the spearheads tend to be significantly heavier (up to 1.8 kg) after exceeding this limit.

Graph showing the ratio of socket diameter to total length. Includes only well-measured pieces.
Orange line = type I spearheads, blue line = type II spearheads.

  • the angle formed by the edges forming the tip of the spearhead.
    In the case of material collected by us, pieces whose edges create the angle of more than 16° and less than 16° are spontaneously set aside. The points of the spears, whose edges form an angle greater than 16 °, are always leaf-shaped and their blades taper in an arc (type I). In contrast, tips with edges making an angle of less than 16° are usually continuously tapered in a straight line (type II), less often leaf-shaped. It seems that a certain part of the leaf-shaped spears deliberately chooses the angle of around 15-17°, which can be perceived as an effort for versatility and a combination of stabbing and cutting qualities. This principle must be taken with some reserve, because the blades can be ground by the usage, which can be the case, for example, of the spear from Zasip pri Bledu.


Left: leaf shape (type I); right: continuously tapered shape (type II).


Evaluation and consequences

Type I
Type I spearheads have a leaf-like blade shape, which is characterized by the widest part being in the middle third, less often in the first third. The average width of the blade is 5.27 cm (excluding the large group of Petersen type E spearheads, which are characterized by narrow blades, the average width would increase significantly). The blade tapers towards the tip in an arc, less often the edges are straight. It is typical for rounded edges to form an angle exceeding 16° at the tip, while the straight edges forming the tip meet in an angle which is less than or equal to 16°. The ratio of the narrowest part of the neck from the front view to the total length of the spear is between 1:35.92 – 1:14.52, while the ratio of the socket diameter to the total length reaches 1: 21.74 – 1:11.35. The width of the socket does not fall below 2 cm, but the usual value is higher than 3 cm (diameter 3.34 cm). The weight of the spears exceptionally drops below 0.5 kg; after exceeding a neck to total length ratio of 1:27 or a socket diameter to total length ratio of 1:17, the spears tend to be heavier than 1 kg. Spearheads of this type are seldom decorated; some pieces are inlayed with wire or have their wings decorated with openwork decoration.

In virtually all cases, spearheads of this type can be described as continental production, belonging to Westphal type II-V, Petersen type A-E, type VI according to Solberg or Kirpičnikov type I (Solberg 1991). As the burial with weapons in the Frankish Empire ends at the end of the 8th century, the only way to confirm this is through circumstantial evidence. Bergljot Solberg, for example, found that many spears of this shape were made by the pattern welding method and that these spearheads were found mainly in the coastal areas of Norway, leading her to conclude that she considered weapons to be Frankish imports (Solberg 1991: 256). The spearheads from Mikulčice and Nin-Ždrijac can be easily assigned to the Carolingian horizon thanks to spurs. It is typical that if leaf spears appear in sword graves, they are usually H/I type swords (at least 15 European graves). This fact indicates at least a significant use in the 9th century, when this type of sword was the most popular. Other types with which leaf spears longer than 50 cm are placed in graves are C (1×), E (1×), K (1×), L (1×) and X (2×). The presence in mounds from Gnězdovo, Luistari or Poland testifies to the burial until the end of the 10th century. Probably the only leaf-shaped spear exceeding 50 cm, which can be safely dated to the 11th century, comes from a sunken ship from Serçe Limani.

Comparison of a type I spear with a sword. Location Solbjør, Solberg 1984: 219, Pl. 7B.

The reason for the spread of this type from the Frankish environment to the surrounding Europe is the same as for continental swords – due to Carolingian reforms, central workshops were established to produce tens of thousands of weapons, combining better blade production with more progressive shape (personal discussion with Jiří Košta). It is highly probable that leaf-shaped spears were, in addition to swords, another products of these workshops – a comparison with swords is offered thanks to good craftsmanship and the considerable dimensions of leaf-shaped spears. A secondary reason for the introduction of Petersen type E spearheads in the peripheral parts of Europe may be the fact that, they fit better into local traditions, as they are equipped with narrower sockets.

It is remarkable that the advent of massive leaf spears correlates with the decline of seaxes, which can be explained by the fact that the cavalry-oriented Frankish Empire switched from a light spear – heavy sword – shorter backup sword model to a heavier, higher quality spear – lighter, better sword model; in other words, the armament in this period was simplified for the user and materially improved. The Frankish iconography of the early 9th century is a testimony to this change that has taken place, where we can only see swords and spears used on foot and on horseback, while axes and seaxes are absent. The users of these weapons were undoubtedly very multifunctionally trained to be able to control the armament both on horseback and in ground formation. Proof of this is also the including of spurs in graves containing leaf spears (Kouřil 2005).


Practical use of leaf spears. Stuttgart Psalter, WLB Cod.bibl.fol.23, 003v, 047v.

Although some of the leaf spears were light and controllable with one hand, the more massive spearheads were undoubtedly two-handed and suitable for heavy cut-and-thrust, usable as swords in all respects. Their functional aspect is often multiplied by wings, which, among other things, act as a cross-guard. When used on ground, these massive variants had to be exceptionally useful against both cavalry and infantry, while in cavalry use they could be used as cutting, anti-infantry weapons. It is difficult to imagine that such massive spearheads would be placed on very long shafts. In iconography, the spears are usually as high or slightly taller than the wearer. In archeology, the spearheads are often located next to the head, but it is not clear whether the shaft was broken before being placed in the grave or not (eg Belošević 2007: 275; Kouřil 2005: Abb. 4, 6, 15, 16).


Position of leaf spears in graves.
Abramowicz – Nadolski – Poklewski-Koziełł 1959
: Tabl. XIc; Belošević 2007: 275; Kouřil 2005: Abb. 4, 6, 15, 16.

Reproduction of very long leaf spearheads. Archive of Samuel Grolich and David Herda.

Type II 
Type II spearheads are characterized by a continuously tapered blade with straight edges and the widest part of the blade located in the first third. The average width of the blade is 4.28 cm. The edges at the tip form an angle less than or equal to 16°. The ratio of the narrowest part of the neck from the front view to the total length of the spear is between 1:59.4 – 1:27.51, while the ratio of the socket diameter to the total length reaches 1:28.31 – 1:16.77. The socket diameter (average 2.6 cm) varies with different Petersen types – in the case of type I it often gets below 2 cm, while for type M the normal value is around 3 cm. The weight of the tips does not exceed the upper limit of 0.75 kg, weight below 0.5 kg is a common phenomenon. Spearheads of this type are often decorated with inlay or overlay of non-ferrous metals and rivets of copper alloy.

The spearheads of this shape can be assigned to Wesphal types II-IV, Irish and Welsh types, Petersen types F, I, K and M and type VII according to Solberg, so it is a shape whose production was situated not only on the Continent but also on the outskirts of Europe (Great Britain, Scandinavia, Baltic). For spearheads over 50 cm long, this shape is typically found in the 10th and 11th centuries. During this period, Scandinavian types of decorated spears also appear to a limited extent on the Continent (unknown site, Dobrée museum; Rezé; Lednica; Budapest). The spears of this shape are found with a wider range of mainly Scandinavian types of swords – H/I (4×), L (2×), M (8×), K/O (5×), Q (4×), S (3×) , T (2×), U/V (6×), X (3×), Y (2×), Z (1×).

Comparison of a type II spear with a sword. Kilde site, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Spearheads of this shape show a more archaic approach to armaments, which is also manifested at the sword level. The composition of the armament follows the idea of a light spear – a heavy sword, which has had continuity since the Migration Period (Nørgård Jørgensen 1999: 164-170). The spear was designed primarily for stabbing, slices and small cuts. It seems that the very long spearheads of type II could also be javelins, as shown by the find from Lendbreen – 45.5 cm long spearhead with a socket diameter of 1.9 cm that is placed on a shaft with a total length of 195 cm, with the widest part of the shaft at a distance of 40-60 cm from the socket (diameter 2.4-2.5 cm) and the end of the shaft tapered to a thickness of 1 cm. As we mentioned above, some tanged spearheads with a length of over 50 cm were certainly javelins. An interesting record from written sources is offered by the Laxdæla saga (chap. 55), in which we find the following passage:

At that moment Helgi Harðbeinsson rushed in with a javelin, the head of which was an ell long [49 cm] and the shaft bound with iron. When Bolli saw that he cast away his sword, and took his shield in both hands, and went towards the dairy door to meet Helgi. Helgi threw the javelin at Bolli, pierced the shield and Bolli.

Type II seems to be dominant especially in those regions where composite sword pommels with short guards dominates and where the cavalry fight did not have a long tradition, if any. However, they also have a certain representation on the Continent alongside leaf spears. If we look at Scandinavia, the Baltic countries and the United Kingdom, we find that at least 6 very long points are combined in the graves with other, shorter spearheads, which would be difficult to find in Central-Western Europe and the Balkans. In the same areas we find more than twenty graves, in which long spears are combined with equestrian equipment, most often bits and stirrups. Spurs in these areas are not among the objects that are commonly found along with large spearheads longer than 50 cm.

For us, the long spear became a means of pointing out the fundamental differences between the core and the peripheries of Europe in the period of 8th-11th century, opposed arms traditions and the way of war in these areas. While most European elites preferred ground combat, using a one-handed spear in combination with a traditionally designed sword, in Midwestern Europe this model was partially re-evaluated due to the construction of rapidly moving cavalry formations, though not completely abandoned.

More traditional spear handling (left) × more progressive spear handling (right).
Source: Mannschaft der Ormrinn Brands; Jōṛa Photo Tales.


Catalog

Hungary

Budapest-Dunameder
Stray river find.
9th-11th century.
Total length: 57 cm.
Blade length: 41 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4,5 cm.
Wingspan: 12,1 cm.
Weight: 1,71 kg.
Literature: 
Husár 2006: 66; Husár 2016: 8; Kovács 1970a: 85, Fig. 3.2; Kovács 1980: 98.

Budapest-Dunameder, Kovács 1970a: Fig. 3.2.

Budapest-Dunameder
Stray river find.
Late 10th – early 11th century.
Overlaid with gold.
Total length: 59,7 cm.
Blade length: 43,7 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,9 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,8-0,9 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,2 cm.
Literature: 
Fodor 1996: 365-6; Husár 2014: 151; Husár 2016: 8; Kovács 1970a: 85, Fig. 5.4; Kovács 1970bKovács 1978: 67.


Budapest-Dunameder, Kovács 1970a: Fig. 5.4.

Unknown site
Unknown context.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 51,3 cm.
Blade length: 39,8 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,6 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,8 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,3 cm.
Wingspan: 8,4 cm.
Literature: 
Kovács 1970a: 86, Fig. 3.3; Kovács 1980: 102.


Unknown site, Kovács 1970a: Fig. 3.3.

Kecskemét-Belváros
Stray find.
9th century.
Total length: 60,8 cm.
Blade length: 54 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,7 cm.
Literature: 
Husár 2006: 66; Husár 2014: 119; Kovács 1970a: 86, Fig. 4.1; Kovács 1980: 99.


Kecskemét-Belváros, Kovács 1970a: Fig. 4.1.

Budapest-Csepel
Stray find.
9th-11th century.
Total length: 50 cm.
Blade length: 37 cm.
Maximum blade width: 7 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4,6 cm.
Wingspan: 11,5 cm.
Literature: 
Husár 2006: 66; Husár 2014: 117, 142; Kovács 1970a: 84, Fig. 3.1; Kovács 1980: 97.


Budapest-Csepel, Kovács 1970a: Fig. 3.1.

Tiszalök – Rázompuszta
Unknown context.
9th-11th century.
Total length: 56,8 cm.
Blade length: 46,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 7,15 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 1,6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4 cm.
Weight: 1,53 kg.
Literature: 
Kovács 1980: 102.


Tiszalök – Rázompuszta, Kovács 1980: Taf. 65.1.


Czech Republic

Mikulčice
Grave find, grave 1241. Found with an axe and spurs.
1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 50 cm.
Blade length: 39 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,3 cm.
Weight: 0,487 kg.
Literature: 
Kouřil 2005: 91; Kouřil 2014: 308.


Mikulčice, Kouřil 2005: Abb. 2.1.


Slovakia

Nitra-Na Palánke
Hoard.
9th century.
Total length: 56,5 cm.
Blade length: 43,7 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4,9 cm.
Wingspan: 10,1 cm.
Literature: 
Husár 2006: 67; Husár 2014: 120, 147; Kovács 1980: 104.


Nitra-Na Palánke, Kovács 1980: Taf. 65.3.


Poland

Lednica
Intentional deposition in a lake.
10th-11th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 51,5 cm.
Blade length: 32,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,9 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,4 cm.
Weight: 0,381 kg.
Literature: 
Sankiewicz 2018: 170.


Lednica, Sankiewicz 2018: Cat. No. 25.

Lednica
Intentional deposition in a lake.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 54,4 cm.
Blade length: 39,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,3 cm.
Weight: 0,397 kg.
Literature: 
Sankiewicz 2018: 182.


Lednica, 
Sankiewicz 2018: Cat. No. 35.

Lednica
Intentional deposition in a lake.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 73 cm.
Blade length: 60 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3 cm.
Weight: 0,68 kg.
Literature: 
Sankiewicz 2018: 186.


Lednica, Sankiewicz 2018: Cat. No. 40.

Złotoria
Stray river find.
8th-11th century.
Total length: circa 51 cm.
Maximum blade width: circa 3,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: circa 3 cm.
Literature: 
Chudziak 2016: 201.

Złotoria, Chudziak 2016: Ryc. 214.

Krępsk
Stray lake find.
10th-11th century.
Total length: circa 50 cm.
Literature: 
Chudziak 2016: 72-4.


Krępsk, 
Chudziak 2016: Ryc. 56a.

Unknown site, Western Pomerania
Unknown context.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 55 cm.
Blade length: 41 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,5 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 1,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,7 cm.
Wingspan: 12,5 cm.
Literature: 
Świątkiewicz 2002: Cat. 60.


Unknown site, Western Pomerania, Świątkiewicz 2002: Tab. X.7.

Stepnica
Stray river find.
8th-11th century.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 29 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,8 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 1,6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,8 cm.
Wingspan: 4 cm.
Literature: 
Świątkiewicz 2002: Cat. 16.


Stepnica, Świątkiewicz 2002: Tab. X.8.

Nowe Warpno
Stray find.
8th-11th century.
Total length: 58 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,5 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 5 cm.
Literature: 
Nadolski 1954: 186-7; Świątkiewicz 2002: Cat. 12.


Nowe Warpno, Świątkiewicz 2002: Tab. IX.10.

Barwice
Stray find.
8th-11th century.
Total length: 62,5 cm.
Blade length: 50 cm.
Maximum blade width: 1,7 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 1 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,4 cm.
Literature: 
Nadolski 1954: 176-7; Świątkiewicz 2002: Cat. 1.


Barwice, Petersen 1939: Abb. 21b.

Niepart
Stray find.
Total length: 54,5 cm.
Literature: 
Nadolski 1954: 182-3.

Lutomiersk
Grave find, grave 44. Found with an axe and spurs.
11th century.
Total length: 52 / 55 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,6 cm.
Literature: 
Abramowicz – Nadolski – Poklewski-Koziełł 1959: 55, Tabl. XL.e; Nadolski 1954: 180-1.

Lutomiersk, Abramowicz – Nadolski – Poklewski-Koziełł 1959: Tabl. XL.e.

Unknown site, Greater Poland
Stray find.
10th century.
Total length: 55 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,3 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4 cm.
Literature: 
Nadolski 1954: 188-9.


Lutomiersk, Nadolski 1954: Tab. XXVIII.1.


Austria

Traun
Stray find.
3rd third of 8th – 1st third of 9th century.
Inlayed with non-ferrous metal.
Total length: 58 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,8 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Wingspan: 8,4 cm.
Literature: 
Szameit 1987: 158.


Traun, 
Szameit 1987: Abb. 2.2.

Steinabrunn
Grave find, grave 15.
3rd third of 8th – 1st third of 9th century.
Total length: 52 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,8 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Literature: 
Szameit 1987: 160.


Steinabrunn, Szameit 1987: Abb. 4.1.

Wimm
Grave find, grave 43.
3rd third of 8th – 1st third of 9th century.
Total length: 50 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Literature: 
Szameit 1987: 161.


Wimm, Szameit 1987: Abb. 5.1.

Längsee
Stray lake find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 39,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,5 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,9 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,2 cm.
Wingspan: 9 cm.
Literature: 
Eichert – Mehofer – Baier 2011Eichert – Mehofer 2019.


Längsee, Eichert – Mehofer 2019: Fig. 2.


Slovenia

Rakova Jelša
Stray river find.
9th century.
Total length: 54,5 cm.
Blade length: 40,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,5 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,6 cm.
Wingspan: 9,5 cm.
Literature: 
Husár 2006: 33; Husár 2016: 9; Svoljšak et al. 1997: 262.


Rakova Jelša, Svoljšak et al. 1997: tab. 16.3.

Zasip pri Bledu
Stray river find.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 59 cm.
Blade length: 47,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,8 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4,2 cm.
Literature: 
Bavec 1991: 66-7; Husár 2016: 9.


Zasip pri Bledu, Husár 2016: Fig. 2.6.


Croatia

Varaždin
Stray find.
Early 9th century.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 38,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,7 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4,3 cm.
Wingspan: 10 cm.
Weight: 1,2 kg.
Literature: 
Demo 2010: 72, 74; Husár 2014: 122, 151; Tomičić 1984: 223-226, Sl. 9, 10; Tomičić 1968Tomičić 1985Tomičić 2013.


Varaždín, Tomičić 1968: Sl. 2.

Trilj
Stray river find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 51,4 cm.
Blade length: 38,2 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,9 cm.
Wingspan: 8,9 cm.
Weight: 0,68 kg.
Literature: 
Demo 2010: 72, 74; Milošević 1999: 209.


Trilj, Milošević 1999: Abb. 8.

Nin-Ždrijac
Grave find, grave 322. Found with an H type sword and spurs.
2nd half of 8th – early 9th century.
Total length: 50 cm.
Blade length: 35 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4 cm.
Literature: 
Belošević 2007: 278; Demo 2010: 72, 74.


Nin-Ždrijac, Belošević 2007: Tab. CXCVI.2.

Unknown site
Stray river find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 51 cm.
Blade length: 37,8 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,1 cm.
Wingspan: 7,8 cm.
Literature: 
Demo 2010: 72, 74; Kovač 2003: 63, Sl. 87b.


Unknown site, Kovač 2003: Sl. 87b.


Serbia

Fruška Gora
Unknown context.
Mid 9th – early 11th century.
Total length: 56 cm.
Blade length: 38,6 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,3 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 1,05 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,8 cm.
Wingspan: 11,8 cm.
Weight: 1,593 kg.
Literature: 
Sajdl 2018.


Fruška Gora, Sajdl 2018: Pl. 1.


Bosnia and Herzegovina

Vir – Posušje
Unknown context.
Late 8th – 2nd half of 9th century.
Total length: circa 70 cm.
Literature: 
Bekić 2003: 167, Sl. 3; Demo 2010: 72, 74; Miletić 1991: 205-6.


Vir – Posušje, Miletić 1991: T. IV.3.

Stolac-Čairi
Grave find. Found with a K type sword.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 51 cm.
Blade length: 36,16 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,6 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,8 cm.
Wingspan: 7,73 cm.
Literature: 
Bekić 2003: 167, Sl. 3; Demo 2010: 72, 74; Vinski 1981: 20.


Stolac-Čairi, Vinski 1981: Tab. XIII.3.

Unknown site
Unknown context.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 51,7 cm.
Blade length: 38,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,5 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 1,5 cm.
Weight: 1,333 kg.
Literature: 
Demo 2010: 72, 74; Miletić 1991: 204.


Unknown site, Miletić 1991: T. IV.2.

Unknown site
Unknown context.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 52,2 cm.
Blade length: 35,4 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,8 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4,6 cm.
Weight: 1,8224 kg.
Literature: 
Sajdl 2018: 151; Sijarić 2014: 221.


Unknown site in Bosnia, Sijarić 2014: Tab. XLV.1.


Belgium

Schoonaarde
Stray river find.
2nd half of 9th – 10th century.
Total length: 54,2 cm.
Blade length: 41,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,3 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,6 cm.
Wingspan: 7,5 cm.
Literature: 
De Graeve 2010: 47, 111-2.


Schoonaarde, De Graeve 2010: Fig. 51.

Oudenaarde
Stray river find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 55,4 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,1 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Wingspan: 8,5 cm.
Literature: 
De Graeve 2010: 45, 112-3.


Oudenaarde, De Graeve 2010: Fig. 53.

Oudenaarde
Stray river find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 50,4 cm.
Blade length: 36 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,3 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3 cm.
Wingspan: 8,5 cm.
Literature: 
De Graeve 2010: 45, 113-4.


Oudenaarde, De Graeve 2010: Fig. 56.

Oudenaarde
Stray river find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 50,6 cm.
Blade length: 35 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,8 cm.
Wingspan: 8,9 cm.
Literature: 
De Graeve 2010: 45, 114-5.


Oudenaarde, De Graeve 2010: Fig. 58.


The Netherlands

Buurmalsen
Stray river find.
2nd half of 9th – 10th century.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 38 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5 cm.
Wingspan: 7 cm.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: 250; Westphal 2002: 295.

Nijmegen
Stray river find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 53,6 cm.
Blade length: 42,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,2 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 1,2 cm.
Wingspan: 10 cm.
Weight: 1,4 kg.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: no. 7; Westphal 2002: 295.


Nijmegen, Ypey 1982: no. 7.

Heukelum
Stray find.
9th century.
Total length: 59,7 cm.
Blade length: 46 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,4 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,5 cm.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: no. 5.


Heukelum, Ypey 1982: no. 5.

Lobith
Stray find.
Total length: 57,5 cm.
Blade length: 43 cm.
Maximum blade width: 7 cm.
Wingspan: 9,4 cm.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: no. 6.

Nijmegen
Stray river find.
1st half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 51 cm.
Blade length: 40,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,4 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,8 cm.
Wingspan: 7,3 cm.
Weight: 0,51 kg.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: no. 9; Westphal 2002: 295.


Nijmegen, Ypey 1982: no. 9.

Nijmegen
Stray find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 52,6 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,7 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,48 cm.
Wingspan: 10 cm.
Weight: 0,535 kg.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: no. 10; Westphal 2002: 295.


Nijmegen, Ypey 1982: no. 10.

Nijmegen
Stray find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 54,3 cm.
Blade length: 43 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,5 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,86 cm.
Wingspan: 8,4 cm.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: no. 16; Westphal 2002: 295.


Nijmegen, Ypey 1982: no. 16.

Wijk bij Duurstede / Dorestad
Settlement find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 54,7 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,6 cm.
Wingspan: 9,74 cm.
Weight: 0,675 kg.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: no. 24; Westphal 2002: 295.


Dorestad, Ypey 1982: no. 24.

Wijk bij Duurstede
Stray find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 51,3 cm.
Blade length: 39 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,7 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,8 cm.
Wingspan: 7,4 cm.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: no. 29; Westphal 2002: 295.


Wijk bij Duurstede, Ypey 1982: no. 29.

Unknown, possible Rees in Germany
Unknown context.
1st half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 56 cm.
Blade length: 42 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,2 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 0,55 cm.
Wingspan: 7,8 cm.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: no. 32; Westphal 2002: 295.


Unknown, possible Rees, Ypey 1982: no. 32.

Unknown site
Unknown context.
1st half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 39,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Wingspan: 8,5 cm.
Literature: 
Ypey 1982: no. 35; Westphal 2002: 295.


Unknown site, Ypey 1982: no. 35.


Turkey

Serçe Limani
Found in a shipwreck.
11th century.
Total length: 56,3 cm.
Blade length: 43,4 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,7 cm.
Wingspan: 8 cm.
Literature: 
Sajdl 2018: 151; Schwarzer 2004: 367, 369.


Serçe Limani, Schwarzer 2004: Fig. 21-6.


Russia

Gnězdovo
Grave find, grave Ц-15/Кусц-1874. Found with an E type sword.
10th century.
Total length: 52,3 cm.
Blade length: 42 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,1 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3 cm.
Literature: 
Kainov 2019: Табл. 10.1; Kirpičnikov 1966: 71.


Gnězdovo, Kainov 2019: рис. 41.

Gnězdovo
Grave find, grave ПОль-61/1980. Found with an axe.
10th century.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 45 cm.
Literature: 
Kainov 2019: Табл. 10.7.


Gnězdovo, Kainov 2019: рис. 42.1.

Gnězdovo
Grave find, grave ПОль-11/1979. Found with a horse skeleton and a long knife.
10th century.
Total length: 50 cm.
Blade length: 37,5 cm.
Literature: 
Kainov 2019: Табл. 10.19.


Gnězdovo, Kainov 2019: рис. 43.5.

Kalichnovščina
Grave find, grave 322 (54).
11th-12th century.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 38,8 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,9 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 66, 482; Kirpičnikov 1966: 71.


Kalichnovščina, Creutz 2003: 483.

Unknown site, Ladoga region
Possible grave find. It is possible that the grave is described as grave 538 from Sjaznega by Kočkurkina (
1989: 134, рис. 92).
11th-12th century.
Total length: 54,5 cm.
Blade length: 38,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,1 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 66, 491.


Unknown site, Ladoga region, Creutz 2003: 491.

Unknown site, Kaliningrad Oblast
Unknown context.
11th century.
Total length: 52 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,4 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,6 cm.
Weight: 0,452 kg.
Literature: the catalog of Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.


Unknown site, Kaliningrad Oblast, the catalog of Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.

Ekritten
Grave find, grave 12. Found with a helmet, two other spearheads, horsegear and horse skeleton.
11th-12th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 77,5 cm.
Literature: 
La Baume 1940: 86.


Ekritten, La Baume 1940: Abb. 2n.


Ukraine

Mala Kopanja
Found in a fortified settlement.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 36 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,4 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,9 cm.
Wingspan: 8,3 cm.

Literature: Husár 2006: 67; Husár 2014: 29-30, 141; Kovács 1980: 100; Sajdl 2018: 251.


Mala Kopanja, Husár 2014: Tab. XVI.3.

Listvin
Found in a fortified settlement.
8th-9th century.
Total length: 50 cm.
Blade length: 35,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4,5 cm.
Literature: 
Androščuk – Zocenko 2012: 161.


Listvin, Androščuk – Zocenko 2012: Fig. 113.

Unknown, possible Kiev region
Detector find sold in July 2021 at the Violity auction.
Total length: 50 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 4,7 cm.
Literature: 
unpublished, author’s archive.

A spear found by a detector from the Kiev region in Ukraine.


Estonia

Käku
Grave find.
11th-12th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 38,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,1 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,1 cm.
Weight: 0,755 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 60, 320.


Käku, Creutz 2003: 321.

Unknown site, Saaremaa
Stray find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 55,5 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 60, 332.

Unknown site, Saaremaa, Creutz 2003: 333.

Maidla
Grave find. Found with an M type axe and other spearheads.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 52,5 cm.
Blade length: 36,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,1 cm.
Weight: 0,53 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 60, 342.


Maidla, Creutz 2003: 343.

Kuusalu
Stray find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 56 cm.
Blade length: 43,1 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,7 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,4 cm.
Weight: 0,58 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 61, 352.


Kuusalu, Creutz 2003: 353.

Tuula
Grave find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 55,8 cm.
Blade length: 41,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,6 cm.
Weight: 0,554 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 61, 354.


Tuula, Creutz 2003: 355.

Alatskivi
Grave find. Found with an M type axe.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 51,2 cm.
Blade length: 38 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2 cm.
Weight: 0,475 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 61, 364.

Alatskivi, Creutz 2003: 365.

Raatvere
Grave find. Found with an axe.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 69,5 cm.
Blade length: 50 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,4 cm.
Weight: 0,45 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 61, 366.

Raatvere, Creutz 2003: 367.

Ulila
Grave find. Found with an axe.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 55,6 cm.
Blade length: 41,6 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,8 cm.
Weight: 0,42 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 61, 368.


Ulila, Creutz 2003: 369.


Finland

Luistari
Grave find, grave 348. Found with an X type sword, a long knife and a shorter spearhead.
10th century.
Total length: 52,2 cm.
Blade length: 41,2 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,7 cm.
Maximální tlouštka čepele: 0,6 cm.
Literature: 
Lehtosalo-Hilander 1982a: 239,Pl. 96.13; Lehtosalo-Hilander 1982b: Fig. 7.11.

Luistari, Lehtosalo-Hilander 1982b: Fig. 7.11.

Pappilanmäki
Stray find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 56,8 cm.
Blade length: 42,8 cm.
Maximum blade width: 7,6 cm.
Weight: 0,682 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 64, 448.


Pappilanmäki, Creutz 2003: 449.

Haukka
Stray find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 53,8 cm.
Blade length: 42,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 1,9 cm.
Weight: 0,319 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 65, 454.

Haukka, Creutz 2003: 455.

Hukari
Possible grave find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 51,8 cm.
Blade length: 38 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,7 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 65, 456.


Haukka, Creutz 2003: 457.

Hukari
Possible grave find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 50,2 cm.
Blade length: 38,4 cm.
Maximum blade width: 8 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,2 cm.
Weight: 0,56 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 65, 456.


Haukka, Creutz 2003: 457.

Laukko
Stray find.
11th-12th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 62,5 cm.
Blade length: 43 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,1 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 65, 458.


Laukko, Creutz 2003: 459.

Mainiemi
Possible grave find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 36 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,7 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3 cm.
Weight: 0,43 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 65, 462.

Mainiemi, Creutz 2003: 463.

Mainiemi
Possible grave find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 52,5 cm.
Blade length: 38,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 7 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,2 cm.
Weight: 0,485 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 65, 462.

Mainiemi, Creutz 2003: 463.

Pahkavuori
Stray find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 51 cm.
Blade length: 38 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,2 cm.
Weight: 0,482 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 65, 462.

Pahkavuori, Creutz 2003: 463.

Taljala
Stray find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 61,5 cm.
Blade length: 47,9 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,8 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,8 cm.
Weight: 0,643 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 65, 466.


Taljala, Creutz 2003: 467.

Lapinlahti
Grave find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 62 cm.
Blade length: 45,8 cm.
Maximum blade width: 7,6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3 cm.
Weight: 0,676 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 65, 476.


Lapinlahti, Creutz 2003: 477.

Unknown site, Turku region
Stray find.
11th-12th century.
Total length: 53,5 cm.
Blade length: 38 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,5 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 65, 480.


Unknown site, Turku region, Creutz 2003: 481.

Kjuloholm
Grave find, grave C K. Found with a T type sword and a shorter spearhead.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 59,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,2 cm.
Literature: 
Cleve 1978: 60, 165.

Kjuloholm, Cleve 1978: Pl. 20.313.


Sweden

Birka, Bj 536
Grave find. Found with a shield.
Total length: 52,5 cm.
Blade length: 42 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,9 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,8 cm.
Literature: 
Thålin-Bergman 1986: 19.

Birka, Bj 536, Arbman 1940: Taf. 8.2.

Birka, Bj 542
Grave find. Found with an H type sword.
Total length: 57,2 cm.
Blade length: 46,2 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,6 cm.
Literature: 
Thålin-Bergman 1986: 19.


Birka, Bj 542, Arbman 1940: Taf. 8.1.

Birka, Bj 643
Grave find. Found with an H type sword and a shield.
Total length: 50,3 cm.
Blade length: 41,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,5 cm.
Literature: 
Thålin-Bergman 1986: 19.

Birka, Bj 643, catalog mis.historiska.se.

Birka, Bj 708
Grave find. Found with a shield and horse gear including spurs.
Total length: 50,8 cm.
Blade length: 35,9 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,4 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2 cm.
Literature: 
Thålin-Bergman 1986: 19.


Birka, Bj 708, Arbman 1940: Taf. 7.4.

Birka, Bj 850
Grave find. Found with an H type sword and a shield.
Total length: 54,7 cm.
Blade length: 40,7 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,4 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,1 cm.
Literature: 
Thålin-Bergman 1986: 19.


Birka, Bj 850, Arbman 1940: Taf. 7.2.

Birka, Bj 955
Grave find. Found with a long knife, a shield and horse gear.
Total length: 55,5 cm.
Blade length: 39,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 1,9 cm.
Literature: 
Thålin-Bergman 1986: 19.


Birka, Bj 955, Arbman 1940: Taf. 7.6.

Forneby
Possible grave find. SHM 1111.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 62,3 cm.
Blade length: 47 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,1 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,4 cm.
Weight: 0,596 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 63, 402.


Forneby, Creutz 2003: 403.

Näs
Possible grave find.
10th-11th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 51 cm.
Blade length: 37,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,6 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 63, 412.


Näs, Creutz 2003: 413.

Tomta
Stray find.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 55,5 cm.
Blade length: 41 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,8 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,6 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 63, 412.


Tomta, Creutz 2003: 413.

Stenby
Stray find.
10th-11th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 54,4 cm.
Blade length: 41 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,4 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 63, 412.


Stenby, Creutz 2003: 413.

Göksbo
Possible grave find.
10th-11th century.
Overlaid with copper alloy.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 38,8 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 63, 420.


Göksbo, Creutz 2003: 421.

Ullbro
Grave find. SHM 20590.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 52,5 cm.
Blade length: 36 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Weight: 0,562 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 63, 422.


Ullbro, Creutz 2003: 423.

Fors
Grave find. Found with a L type sword and an axe. SHM 19777:2.
10th-11th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 52,7 cm.
Blade length: 37 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,4 cm.
Weight: 0,441 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 64, 430; Fuglesang 1980: 149.


Fors, Creutz 2003: 431.

Hedesunda
Grave find. Found with an H type sword and an arrow. SHM 8974.
9th-10th century.
Total length: 50 cm.
Literature: 
Androshchuk 2014: Gä 25-6; Creutz 2003: Fig. 10:2.

Hedesunda, catalog mis.historiska.se and Creutz 2003: Fig. 10:2.

Vendel IX
Grave find. Found with an H type sword, a long knife, arrows, an axe, a shield, horse gear and horse skeletons.
10th century.
Total length: 56,5 cm.
Blade length: 41 cm.
Literature: 
Stolpe – Arne 1912: 35.


Vendel IX, Stolpe – Arne 1912: Pl. XXV.1.

Tuna – Alsike IV
Grave find. Found with arrows, horse gear and a horse skeleton.
10th century.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 39 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3 cm.
Literature: 
Arne 1934: 29.


Tuna – Alsike IV, Arne 1934: Pl. VIII.2.

Austers
SHM 2309.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 60 cm.
Blade length: 46 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,1 cm.
Literature: 
Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 237.5; Thunmark-Nylén 2000: 354.

Austers, Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 237.5.

Austers
Total length: 50 cm.
Blade length: 42 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,4 cm.
Literature: 
Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 235.7; Thunmark-Nylén 2000: 355.

Austers, Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 235.7.

Källunge
Stray find.
Total length: 66 cm.
Blade length: 51 cm.
Literature: 
Thunmark-Nylén 2000: 479.

Båtare
Stray find.
Total length: 51,5 cm.
Blade length: 38,5 cm.
Literature: 
Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 236.2; Thunmark-Nylén 2000: 229.

Båtare, Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 236.2.

Hällinge
Stray find. SHM 4477.
Total length: 50 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,6 cm.
Literature: 
Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 236.3; Thunmark-Nylén 2000: 629.

Hällinge, Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 236.3.

Vede
Stray find. SHM 15928.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 51 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,7 cm.
Literature: 
Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 241.4; Thunmark-Nylén 2000: 196.

Vede, Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 241.4.

Halla
Stray find. SHM 20517.
Total length: 51,5 cm.
Blade length: 36,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,4 cm.
Literature: 
Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 242.2; Thunmark-Nylén 2000: 345.

Halla, Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 242.2.

Gervide
Stray find.
Total length: 50,5 cm.
Blade length: 25,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,5 cm.
Literature: 
Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 249.5; Thunmark-Nylén 2000: 628-9.

Gervide, Thunmark-Nylén 1998: Abb. 249.5.

Slite
Grave find. Grave VI/1916, SHM 15752:6.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 39,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,1 cm.
Literature: 
Thunmark-Nylén 1995: Abb. 251a.14; Thunmark-Nylén 2000: 573.

Slite, Thunmark-Nylén 1995: Abb. 251a.14.

Sollerö – Utanmyra 1
Grave find. Found with a V type sword, M type axe, a shield boss and arrowheads.
Total length: 58 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Literature: Serning 1966: Pl. 87
.


Sollerö – Utanmyra 1,
Serning 1966: Pl. 87.


Iceland

Rangá
Possible grave inventory.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3 cm.
Literature: 
Eldjárn 1956Eldjárn 2016: 339.


Rangá, Eldjárn 1956.

Kaldárhöfði
Grave find. Found with an O type sword and an axe.
Total length: 63-64,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,3 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,1 cm.
Literature: 
Eldjárn 2016: 89-90, 339, 341.

Kaldárhöfði, Eldjárn 2016: 184. mynd, the catalog of Sarpur.is.


Latvia

Jaunzemji
Grave find.
10th-12th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 54 cm.
Blade length: 37 cm.
Maximum blade width: 7 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,2 cm.
Weight: 0,622 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 62, 380.


Jaunzemji, Creutz 2003: 381, Fig. 11:22.

Laukskola
Grave find, grave 128. Found with an axe.
10th-12th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 50,1 cm.
Blade length: 34,1 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 1,4 cm.
Weight: 0,332 kg.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 62, 384.


Laukskola, Creutz 2003: 385.

Jaunjelgava
Stray find, possible grave inventory.
10th-12th century.
Total length: 60 cm.
Blade length: 44,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,3 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,6 cm.
Weight: 0,72 kg.
Literature: 
Atgāzis 2019: 51; Creutz 2003: 62, 390.


Jaunzemji, Creutz 2003: 391.

Truļi
Stray find, possible grave inventory.
10th-12th century.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 38 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,8 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 62, 392.


Truļi, Creutz 2003: 393.

Nariņi
Grave find, grave 2.
10th-12th century.
Total length: 57,2 cm.
Blade length: 44 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,6 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 62, 394.


Nariņi, Creutz 2003: 395.

Laukskola
Grave find, grave 366. Found with an H sword and an other spearhead.
10th-12th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 60,5 cm.
Blade length: 45,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Literature: 
Creutz 2003: 62, 398; Zariņa 2006: 112. att.

Laukskola, Creutz 2003: 399, Fig. 11:34.

Laukskola
Grave find, grave 228. Found with an axe.
10th-12th century.
Total length: 60 cm.
Blade length: 44 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,4 cm.
Literature: 
Atgāzis 2019: 52; Creutz 2003: 62, 398; Zariņa 2006: 112. att.


Laukskola, Creutz 2003: 399, Fig. 11:34.

Dreņģeri-Čunkāni
Grave find, grave 307.
11th century.
Total length: 59 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,1 cm.
Literature: 
Atgāzis 1990: 38; Griciuvienė 2005: 156; Atgāzis 2019: 2. att. tab.


Dreņģeri-Čunkāni, Atgāzis 1990: Att. 7.18, Atgāzis 2019: 2. att. tab.

Jaunsvirlaukas Ciemalde
Grave find.
9th-10th century.
Total length: 51 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Literature: 
Atgāzis 2019: 46.


Jaunsvirlaukas Ciemalde, 
Atgāzis 2019: 14. att.

Ikšķiles Zariņu kapulauks
Grave find, grave 28.
Total length: 51 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,9 cm.
Literature: 
Atgāzis 2019: 52.


Ikšķiles Zariņu kapulauks, Atgāzis 2019: 20. att.


Norway

Brekke
Grave find. Found with two single-edged swords, axes and forging tools. B7783.
Early 9th century.
Total length: 51 cm.
Blade length: 23,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,4 cm.
Literature: 
Nørgård Jørgensen 1999: 225.


Brekke, Nørgård Jørgensen 1999: Taf. 35.3.

Nomeland
Grave find. Found with a sword, an axe and a horse bit. B5207.
10th-11th century.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 51,8 cm, reconstructed length 62 cm.
Blade length: 37,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,8 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,6 cm.
Literature: 
Fuglesang 1980: 148.

Nomeland, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Vang
Grave find. Found with an H type sword, an axe and a shield. T21291.
9th-10th century.
Total length: 56,3 cm.
Blade length: 38 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,1 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,3 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Vang, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Valle
Stray find. B5207.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 37 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS
.

Valle, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Øvre Sætre
Grave find. Found with a single-edged sword, arrows, a shield and tools. B8668.
Early 9th century.
Total length: 60 cm.
Blade length: 47 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,5 cm.
Literature: 
Nørgård Jørgensen 1999: 229.

Øvre Sætre, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Søndre Kaupang
Grave find, mound 6. Found with an H type sword, an axe, a shield, an arrow, stirrups and other equipment. C4294.
Total length: 70,5 cm.
Blade length: circa 55,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,5 cm.
Weight: 0,796 kg.
Literature: 
Blindheim – Heyerdahl-Larsen – Tollnes 1981: 207.

Søndre Kaupang, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Klepland
Grave find, grave 3. C57393.
Overlaid with silver, copper and brass.
Total length: 50 cm.
Blade length: 35 cm.
Weight: 0,343 kg
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Klepland, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Fonbæk
Grave find. C5066.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 62 cm.
Weight: 0,342 kg.
Literature: 
Rygh 1885: Fig. 521; the catalog of UNIMUS.

Fonbæk, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Hellebust
Grave find. Found with an H type sword, axes, arrows and a shield. B1164.
Total length: 61 cm.
Blade length: 46 cm.
Maximum blade width: 7,5 cm.
Literature: 
Lorange 1875: 184; Lorange 1889: Tab. VII.8; Solberg 1984: 196; Westphal 2002: 262.

Hellebust, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Hove
Grave find. Found with a Q type sword and an M type axe. S3667.
Total length: 52 cm, originally longer.
Maximum blade width: 3,8 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Hove, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Sending
Stray find. C24108.
Total length: 52,7 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,6 cm.
Wingspan: 7,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 219.

Sending, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Unknown site, Hof kommune
Stray find. C555.
Total length: 51 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Unknown site, Hof kommune, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Jarlsberg Hovedgård
Grave find. C1232.
Total length: 56-59 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Jarlsberg Hovedgård, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Bolstad
Grave find. C1999.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 35 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,3 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 209.

Bolstad, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Skjensvoll
Grave find. Found with a Q type sword and horse bits. B9257.
Total length: 56,9 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 206.

Skjensvoll, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Egge
Grave find. T20362.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 53,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,7 cm.
Maximum blade thickness: 1,1 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Egge, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Finneid
Unknown context. Ts10912.
Total length: 56 cm.
Blade length: 41 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Finneid, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Ørnes
Grave find. C39281.
Total length: 51,5 cm.
Blade length: 38,7 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,8 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Ørnes, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Langeid
Grave find. C58898.
Total length: 55,3 cm.
Blade length: 38,4 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,7 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,4 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Langeid, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Myklebost
Grave find. Found with an O type sword, shields, and axe and arrows. B5730.
Total length: 62 cm.
Blade length: 44 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Literature: 
Shetelig 1912: 182; Solberg 1984: 200.


Myklebost, Shetelig 1912: Fig. 420.

Torblå
Grave find. Found with an axe, arrows and a horse bit. B6146.
Total length: 54,5 cm.
Blade length: 39,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 201.

Nedre Kyte
Grave find. Found with a sword. B6149.
Total length: 67,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 201.

Sande
Grave find. S3427.
Total length: 57,4 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,9 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Bolseter
Grave find. Found with a L type sword, an axe and a shield. B5795.
Total length: 51,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 201.

Bolseter, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Nygård
Unknown context. B6270.
Total length: 50 cm.
Blade length: 34 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 201.

Nygård, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Ytre Fitje
Unknown context. B5592.
Total length: 52 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 200.

Hole
Grave find. B6135.
Original length greater than 50 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 201.

Solbjør
Grave find. Found with an H type sword. C24513.
Total length: 67 cm.
Blade length: 50 cm.
Maximum blade width: 8,3 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 219, Pl. 7B.


Solbjør, Solberg 1984: 219, Pl. 7B.

Steile
Grave find. Found with swords type sword, an axe, arrows, a shield and a horse bit. C25052.
Total length: 58,1 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,2 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 220, Pl. 11A.

Steile, the catalog of UNIMUS.

S. Finstad
Grave find. Found with a T type sword. C11319.
Total length: 58,2 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 213, Pl. 35B-C.

S. Finstad, the catalog of UNIMUS and Solberg 1984: 219, Pl. 35B.

Indre Årdal
Stray find. B9973.
Total length: 66,3 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 206.

Indre Årdal, the catalog of UNIMUS.

By, Skaun
Stray find. T409.
Total length: 58,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 225.

By, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Sten Nedre
Grave find. C24886.
Total length: 61 cm.
Blade length: 41 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 219.

Store Sunde
Grave find. Found with a sword, an axe, a shield and a horse bit. B7183.
Original length: circa 53 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,7 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 202.

Amla
Grave find. Found with an H type sword, arrows and a horse bit. B7788.
Total length: 52 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 203.

Amla, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Søreide
Stray find. B12347.
Total length: 56 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,8 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 208.

Søreide, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Hetle
Grave find. B13208.
Total length: 50,5 cm.
Blade length: 41 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,4 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 208.

Hetle, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Refsås
Grave find. Found with an axe. T659.
Total length: 73,5 cm.
Blade length: 61 cm.
Maximum blade width: greater than 4,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,2 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 225.


Refsås, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Sinnes
Stray find. T1588.
Total length: greater than 50 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 226.


Sinnes, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Røstad
Grave find. T7759.
Total length: 60 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 230.

Røstad, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Hegge
Grave find. Found with an H type sword and an axe. T12673.
Total length: 50 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 231.

Hegge, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Skarland
Grave find. Found with an H type sword and an axe. T15147.
Total length: 52,4 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 234.

Skarland, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Hegge Østre
Grave find. Found with an H type sword and an axe. T15965.
Total length: 60,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 234.

Hegge Østre, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Ramberg
Grave find. Found with an C type sword. T16992.
Total length: 51 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 234.

Ramberg, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Medjå
Grave find. Found with an axe. T18303.
Total length: 51 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 236.

Medjå, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Aunet Østre
Unknown context. T18866.
Total length: 50,5 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 236.

Aunet Østre, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Haugum
Grave find. Found with a spearhead. T19258.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 237.

Haugum, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Opphus
Grave find. C1979.
Total length: 56 cm.
Blade length: 40,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,8 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 209.

Opphus, the catalog of UNIMUS.

By, Hole
Grave find. C3034.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 37 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 210.

By, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Balstad
Stray find. C34255.
Total length: 52 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,1 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 224.

Balstad, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Eggum
Grave find. Found with a sword, an axe and a shield. B1179.
Total length: 58,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 196.

Foldøy
Grave find. Found with an axe. S6352.
Total length: 53,5 cm.
Blade length: 36,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,1×2,8 cm.
Literature: 
the catalog of UNIMUS.

Foldøy, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Eimstad
Stray find. B1753.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 33 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 197.

Tveita
Grave find. B3062.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 35,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 198.

Urnes
Stray find. B3122.
Total length: 53 cm.
Blade length: 34 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 198.

Eidfjord
Unknown context. B5211.
Total length: 52,4 cm.
Blade length: 35,4 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 200.

Ytre Hauge
Grave find. B5405.
Total length: now 48, in the past more than 50 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 200.

Sårheim
Grave find. Found with an O type sword, an axe, a shield, an arrow and forging tools. B6735.
Total length: 69 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 202.

Sårheim, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Mølmesdal
Grave find. Found with an O type sword and an axe. B7287.
Total length: 65 cm.
Blade length: 46 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 203.

Mundal
Grave find. B7415.
Total length: 52 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 203.

Åstestølen
Grave find. Found with X and Q types swords, an axe and arrows. B7658.
Total length: 56,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 203.

Åstestølen, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Bjerkeland
Stray find. B8057.
Total length: 51 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 204.

Brekke
Grave find. Found with a V type sword, an axe, a shield and arrows. B8118.
Overlaid with silver and copper alloy.
Total length: 53,7 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 204.

Brekke, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Valset
Grave find. Found with a special type 20 sword, an axe and a horse bit. B8294.
Total length: 50,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 204.

Valset, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Rake
Grave find. Found with a sword close to type Z, an axe, a shield and a horse bit. B8371.
Total length: 58,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,8 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 204.

Rake, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Eide
Grave find. Found with an H type sword, an axe, a shield and arrows. B8821.
Total length: 68,8 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 205.

Skjeldal
Grave find. Found with an H type sword. B11053.
Total length: 52,1 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 207.

Berdal
Grave find. Found with forging tools. B11138.
Total length: 52,8 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 207.

Gjemmestad
Grave find. Found with a V type sword, an axe, a shield and a horse bit. B11390.
Total length: 55 cm.
Blade length: 39 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 207.

Fylling
Grave find. Found with an X type sword, an axe, shields, arrows and horse bits. B11470.
Total length: 50,5 cm.
Blade length: 31 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,2 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 208.

Fylling, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Fylling
Grave find. Found with an M type sword, an axe, a shield and a horse bit. B11471.
Total length: 54,5 cm.
Blade length: 36 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 208.

Fylling, the catalog of UNIMUS.


Grave find. Found with an M type sword, an axe, a shield and a horse bit. B11479.
Total length: 55 cm.
Blade length: 35 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 208.

Nordgården
Grave find. Found with an S type sword, an axe, stirrups, a horse bit and arrows. C573.
Overlaid with silver and copper alloy.
Total length: 51 cm.
Blade length: 33 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,7 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 209.

Nordgården, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Unknown site, Porsgrunn
Unknown context. C2202.
Total length: at least 55 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 209.

Unknown site, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Skatter
Grave find. C3380.
Total length: 61 cm.
Blade length: 45 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,2 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 210.

Vestre Evang
Grave find. C4086.
Total length: 56 cm.
Blade length: 45 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,7 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 210.

Kilde
Grave find. Found with a K/O type sword and an arrow. C11015.
Total length: 53,5 cm.
Blade length: 33 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6 cm.
Literature: 
Bergstøl 2008: 275; Solberg 1984: 213.

Kilde, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Værnes Østre
Grave find. Found with a V type sword. T16134.
Total length: 55,3 cm.
Literature: the catalog of UNIMUS.

Værnes Østre, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Mo
Grave find. Found with a sword and an axe. T14612.
Total length: 56,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 233.

Mo, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Utgård
Stray find. T13147.
Total length: 55,5 cm.
Blade length: 43,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 232.

Utgård, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Flemma
Grave find. Found with a Y type sword, an axe, an arrow and a shield. T13145.
Total length: 53,3 cm.
Blade length: 37,3 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 232.

Flemma, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Hammer
Grave find. T13106.
Total length: 52 cm.
Blade length: 35 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 232.

Hammer, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Grande
Grave find. Found with a Q type sword and an axe. T12316.
Total length: 55 cm.
Blade length: 35 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 231.


Grande, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Talsnes
Grave find. Found with X and M type swords, shields, axes and horse bits. T11916.
Total length: 52 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,9 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 231.

Talsnes, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Voll
Unknown context. T6331.
Total length: 50 cm, originally longer.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 229.

Moksnes
Unknown context. T5051.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 50 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 228.


Moksnes, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Rise
Grave find. T4434.
Total length: 57 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 228.

Rise, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Hoås
Grave find. T3729.
Total length: 55 cm.
Blade length: 40 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 228.

Hoås, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Moksnes
Grave find. Found with a sword and an axe. T2050.
Total length: 67 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 226.


Moksnes, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Midtbø
Grave find. Found with a Y type sword and an axe. C28738.
Total length: 56 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 223.

Midtbø, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Røkeberg
Grave find. Found with a sword, an axe, a shield and a horse bit. C28583.
Inlayed with silver and copper alloy.
Total length: 55,8 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 222.

Røkeberg, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Gjerpen Prestegård
Grave find. Found with a sword and an axe. C27821.
Total length: 53,9 cm.
Blade length: 37,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,6 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 222.

Gjerpen Prestegård, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Arnegård
Unknown context. C26555.
Total length: 55,6 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,4 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 221.

Håtveit
Grave find. Found with an axe, an arrow and a horse bit. C26407.
Total length: 55,2 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 221.

Villand
Context unknown. Found with axes and arrows. C26265.
Total length: 53 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 220.

Århus
Context unknown. C25041.
Total length: 54,9 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 220.

Blikstad
Grave find. Found with an M type sword, an axe, a shield, arrows and a horse bit. C24792.
Total length: 58 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,9 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 219.

Øistad
Grave find. Found with an M type sword, an axe, a shield and a horse bit. C24273.
Total length: 51,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,2 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 219.

Mogen
Grave find. Found with an M type sword. C24244.
Total length: 59,4 cm.
Blade length: 42,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 219.

Hov
Context unknown. C24219.
Total length: 52,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,2 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 219.

Hov, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Furuhaugen
Grave find. Found with a sword, an axe, a shield, arrows and a horse bit. C23947.
Total length: 54,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,9 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 219.

Grotheim
Grave find. Found with an M type sword, an axe, a shield, a spearhead and arrows. C23363.
Total length: 50,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 218.

Grotheim, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Aakeren
Grave find. Found with a sword and axes. C23018.
Overlaid with silver.
Total length: 51 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 218.

Aakeren, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Frengstad
Grave find. Found with a sword and a shield. C22688.
Total length: 50 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,6 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 218.

Bjørke
Grave find. Found with a special type 15 sword, an axe, a shield, arrows and a horse bit. C22504.
Total length: 52,5 cm.
Blade length: 37,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,3 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 217.

Byom
Grave find. Found with an H type sword, an axe, a shield, arrows and a horse bit. C22060.
Total length: 65,5 cm.
Blade length: 46,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,5 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 217.

Åkre
Grave find. Found with a sword, an axe and a horse bit. C20697.
Total length: 53 cm, originally longer.
Maximum blade width: 5 cm.
Literature: 
Bergstøl 2008: 348; Solberg 1984: 216.

Bråten
Grave find. Found with an L type sword, two axes, a shield and a horse bit. C10663.
Total length: 55,3 cm.
Literature: 
Bergstøl 2008: 274; Petersen 1919: 33; Solberg 1984: 213.


Bråten, Petersen 1919: Fig. 21.

Rødøen
Grave find. Found with an H type sword. T15802.
9th century.
Total length: 50 cm.
Literature: 
Sjøvold 1974: 15.

Rødøen, the catalog of UNIMUS.

Horstad
Grave find. Found with an H type sword, an axe and a horse bit. T16368.
9th century.
Total length: originally around 55 cm.
Literature: 
Sjøvold 1974: 1.

Unnstad
Found in a broken mound. Ts2875.
1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 50 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Literature: 
Sjøvold 1974: 98.

Risøen
Grave find. Found with an H type sword, an axe, a horse bit and forging tools. Ts2955.
1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 53 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,5 cm.
Literature: 
Sjøvold 1974: 111-2.

Nes
Stray find. Ts1339.
10th century.
Total length: 56 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6 cm.
Literature: 
Sjøvold 1974: 78.

Vesterhaug
Grave find. C22138. Found with an S type sword and riding equipment.
10th century.
Total length: 62,4 cm.
Blade length: 48 cm.
Literature: 
Solberg 1984: 217.

Vesterhaug, the catalog of UNIMUS.


Denmark

Brandstrup I
Grave find. Found with an S type sword and horse gear.
10th century.
Total length: 53,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,3 cm.
Literature: 
Pedersen 2014: 135.


Brandstrup, Pedersen 2014: Pl. 29.3.


Ireland

Harrison and Ó Floinn (Harrison – Ó Floinn 2014: 94) name two spears of the Scandinavian type, which exceed a length of 50 cm. One of them is undoubtedly the spear from Inchicore, Dublin, which reaches a length of about 53 cm (Harrison – Ó Floinn 2014: 98), the second one is not specified. In the National Museum of Dublin, there are then more spears, at least one of which can cross the border we follow.

Inchicore, Harrison – Ó Floinn 2014: Ill. 47.

National Museum of Dublin. The photo taken by Dan Pilař.


France

Verjux
Stray river find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 58,6 cm.
Blade length: 37 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,5 cm.
Literature: 
Bonnamour 1990: 164.


Verjux, Bonnamour 1990: Fig. 206.

Jean-de-Saône
Stray river find.
9th-10th century.
Total length: 51,5 cm.
Blade length: 37 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,1 cm.
Literature: 
Bonnamour 1990: 164.


Jean-de-Saône, Bonnamour 1990: Fig. 207.

La Salle
Stray river find.
9th-10th century.
Total length: 54 cm.
Blade length: 40,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Literature: 
Bonnamour 1990: 166.


La Salle, Bonnamour 1990: Fig. 208.

Oise
Stray river find. Found with a chape.
9th-10th century.
Total length: 51 cm.
Blade length: 41,3 cm.
Maximum blade width: 5,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,58 cm.
Literature: unpublished, information provided by Béline Pasquini
.


Oise, source: Béline Pasquini.

Sommery
8th-9th century.
Total length: 54,8 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,2 cm.
Literature: 
Halbout – Pilet – Vaudour 1987: 222.


Sommery, Halbout – Pilet – Vaudour 1987: Fig. 908.

Elbeuf
Stray river find.
8th-9th century.
Total length: 51,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 9 cm.
Literature: 
Halbout – Pilet – Vaudour 1987: 222.

Unknown site, Normandy
8th-9th century.
Total length: 50,2 cm.
Maximum blade width: 7,1 cm.
Literature: 
Halbout – Pilet – Vaudour 1987: 222.

Tonneins
Total length: 57 cm.
Blade length: 46 cm.
Literature: 
Storaï – Abaz 2016.


Tonneins, Storaï – Abaz 2016.

Villeneuve-Sur-Lot
Found in the river Lot, no context.
Total length: longer than 50 cm.
Literature: unpublished, information kindly provided by Matthieu Haug
.

Unknown site, Dobrée museum
Nine rivets of copper alloy.
Total length: 54,5 cm.
Blade length: 39,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 1,9 cm.
Literature: 
Arbman – Nilsson 1969: 171.

Unknown site, Dobrée museum, Arbman – Nilsson 1969: Fig. 10.

Nantes
8th-10th century.
Total length: 62,6 cm.
Wingspan: 10 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,9 cm.
Weight: 0,72 kg.
Literature: Dobrée museum catalog.


Nantes, Dobrée museum catalog.

Nantes 
Stray river find.
Unknown length.
Literature: 
Arbman – Nilsson 1969: 189.

Nantes, Arbman – Nilsson 1969: Fig. 26.

Taillebourg
Stray river find.
9th-11th century.
Total length: 51 cm.
Blade length: 39 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,5 cm.
Weight: 0,6357 kg.
Literature: 
Dumont – Mariotti 2013.


Taillebourg, Dumont – Mariotti 2013: Fig. 118.

Taillebourg
Stray river find.
9th-11th century.
Total length: 51,5 cm.
Blade length: 36,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,3 cm.
Weight: 0,4843 kg.
Literature: 
Dumont – Mariotti 2013.


Taillebourg, Dumont – Mariotti 2013: Fig. 119.

Saône-et-Loire
Stray river find.
8th-10th century.
Total length: 50,3 cm.
Blade length: 31,8 cm.
Maximum blade width: 7,2 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,8 cm.
Wingspan: 10,5 cm.
Literature: 
Dumont 2002: 152-3.


Saône-et-Loire, the catalogue of Ministère de la Culture.

Vieux-Vy-sur-Couesnon
Total length: 52 cm.
Maximum blade width: 8,1 cm.
Literature: 
Bulletin 1917: 83.


Vieux-Vy-sur-Couesnon, the catalogue of Musée de Bretagne.

Unknown site, Rouen museum
8th-11th century.


Rouen museum, source of the photo: Gvido Libmanis.

Unknown site, Dobrée museum
8th-10th century.
Total length: 61 cm.
Wingspan: 15,5 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,3 cm.
Weight: 0,88 kg.
Literature: Dobrée museum catalog.

Unknown site, Dobrée museum catalog.

Rezé
Grave find.
8th-10th century.
Total length: 58,9 cm.
Wingspan: 11,7 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,7 cm.
Weight: 0,66 kg.
Literature: Dobrée museum catalog.

Rezé, Dobrée museum catalog.

Rezé
9th-10th century.
Total length: 52,4 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,9 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2,5 cm.
Weight: 0,36 kg.
Literature: Dobrée museum catalog.


Rezé, Dobrée museum catalog.

Paris
Stray river find.
2nd half of 9th – 10th century.
Total length: 61,7 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3 cm.
Literature: catalog of Musée Carnavalet.


Paris, catalog of Musée Carnavalet.


Germany

Göggingen – Wald
Total length: 59 cm.
Literature: 
Paulsen 1969: 290.

Düsseldorf
Stray river find.
2nd half of 9th – 10th century.
Total length: 54,7 cm.
Blade length: 41,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,4 cm.
Wingspan: 9,2 cm
Weight: 0,7 kg.
Literature: 
Puhle 2001: 257-8.


Düsseldorf, Puhle 2001: IV.49.

Mainz
Stray river find.
8th-9th century.
Total length: 50 cm, originally around 51 cm.
Blade length: 39 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,7 cm.
Wingspan: 8,7 cm
Outer socket diameter: 3 cm.
Weight: around 1 kg.
Literature: 
Westphal 2002: 251.


Mainz, Westphal 2002: Abb. 3.3.15.

Mainz
Stray river find.
8th-9th century.
Total length: 51,7 cm.
Blade length: 40,9 cm.
Maximum blade width: 4,8 cm.
Wingspan: 8,6 cm
Outer socket diameter: 3,6 cm.
Literature: 
Westphal 2002: 250.


Mainz, Westphal 2002: Abb. 3.3.12.

Darmstadt
Stray river find.
Total length: 59,4 cm.
Blade length: 47,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 3,2 cm.
Literature: 
Westphal 2002: 260.


Darmstadt, Westphal 2002: 261.

Schlüpfelberg – Mühlhausen
1st half of 9th century.
Decorated with gold, silver and copper alloy.
Total length: 51,4 cm.
Literature: the catalog of Archäologische Staatssammlung München.


Schlüpfelberg – Mühlhausen, the catalog of Archäologische Staatssammlung München.

Unknown site
9th-10th century.
Total length: 56 cm.
Literature: photobank Alamy.com.

Unknown site, photobank Alamy.com.

Neuenburg
Stray river find.
2nd half of 8th – 1st half of 9th century.
Total length: 52 cm.
Inner socket diameter: 2,3 cm.
Wingspan: 8,2 cm.
Literature: 
Steuer 1989: 229-231.

Neuenburg, Steuer 1989: Abb. 173.


Great Britain

Nottingham
Grave find. Found with an X type sword.
9th century.
Total length: 62,2 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,4 cm.
Literature: 
Bjørn – Shetelig 1940: 15.


Nottingham, Bjørn – Shetelig 1940: Fig. 3.

Ballateare
Grave find. Found with a V type sword, a shield and other spearheads.
10th century.
Total length: 60 cm.
Literature: 
Bersu – Wilson 1966: 57-8.


Ballateare, Bersu – Wilson 1966: Fig. 35.

Cronk Moar
Grave find. Found with a S type sword and a shield.
10th century.
Total length: 52 cm.
Literature: 
Bersu – Wilson 1966: 76-7.


Cronk Moar, Bersu – Wilson 1966: Fig. 44.

Balladoyne
Grave find. Found with an M type sword and a shield.
Total length: 51-63,5 cm.
Literature: 
Bjørn – Shetelig 1940: 26.

Caerwent, Insula XII
Possible grave inventory. Found with an M type axe.
10th-11th century.
Total length: 58 cm.
Blade length: 48 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,9 cm.
Inner socket diameter: 1,84 cm.
Weight: 0,477 kg.
Literature: 
Knight 1996: 58; Redknap 2000: 53; personally checked by Michael Hendry.


Caerwent, Insula XII, Knight 1996: Fig. 9.

Talacre
Grave find.
Total length: 50 cm.
Literature: 
Redknap 2000: 54.

Kiloran Bay
Grave find. Found with an U/V type sword, an axe, an arrow, a shield and a horse skeleton.
9th-10th century.
Total length: 63,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 6,5 cm.
Literature: 
Grieg 1940: 26.


Kiloran Bay, 
Grieg 1940: Fig. 27.

London
Stray river find. A23349.
11th century.
Total length: 51,2 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,7 cm.
Literature: 
Bjørn – Shetelig 1940: 77; Wheeler 1927: 23.


London, the catalogue of Museum of London.

London
Stray river find. A23351.
11th century.
Total length: 53,5 cm.
Maximum blade width: 3,3 cm.
Literature: 
Bjørn – Shetelig 1940: 77; Wheeler 1927: 23.


London, the catalogue of Museum of London.

London
Stray river find. 1893,0715.2.
9th-10th century.
Overlaid with silver and copper alloy.
Total length: 54,6 cm.
Maximum blade width: 2,34 cm.
Outer socket diameter: 2 cm.
Weight: 0,3 kg.
Literature: 
Bjørn – Shetelig 1940: 84; Graham-Campbell 1980: 73.


London, the catalogue of The British Museum.

London
Stray river find. 1854,0330.1
9th-11th century.
Total length: 74,4 cm.

Literature: the catalogue of The British Museum.

London, the catalogue of The British Museum.

London
Stray river find. 1856,0401.1376.
Total length: 61 cm.

Literature: Bjørn – Shetelig 1940: 84.


London, Bjørn – Shetelig 1940: Fig. 50.


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