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The mail from Stromovka, Prague, Czechia

In addition to the St. Wenceslas armour, which is probably the best preserved mail of early medieval Europe, another not very well-known and poorly published armour found in Stromovka park comes from Prague. In the following text, we will briefly introduce thie find. The author of the article has long been striving for the opportunity to examine the mail in person. If successful, the article will be modified.

Stromovka’s position on the map of Europe.

Finding situation and current position

During earthworks in the Royal Game Reserve – Stromovka in 1938, workers came across a hoard, consisting of two identical helmets with aventails, a mail, ring, leather and metal fragments. The size of the finds indicate that the helmets were inserted into each other and the mail was stored inside the smaller helmet, although the author of the site Curia Vítkov, who had the opportunity to personally inspect the find, informs that the armour was found in the larger helmet (ie Stromovka I).

The find was reported to the Archaeological Institute in Prague, which handed over the hoard to the National Museum the same year. The complete find belongs to the Department of Older Czech History (Oddělení starších českých dějin). The armour, which has inventory number H2-60755 (formerly dep. no. 1150), is stored in the Terezín depository and has been published a total of four times (Bernart 2010: 68-9; Bravermanová et al. 2019: 275-6, Obr. 63; Hejdová 1964: 51; Šnajdrová 2014: 32, Obr. 4).

The mail from Stromovka. Source: Národní muzeum – Historické muzeum,


The mail currently has the form of a loaf-shaped, compact, layered, rusty lump about 17–20 cm high and 50 × 47 cm in circumference. The weight of this lump is approximately 7 kg. As far as we know, no attempt has ever been made to unpack the armour or determine its size. The linking style is the classic “four in one”; the mail is a combination of riveted and solid rings. According to Bravermanová, solid rings are welded (Bravermanová et al. 2019: 275-6). The cross section of both types of rings is close to a circle or oval. Visible rivets have mushroom heads. Copper alloy contrast rings are not visible. The size of the rings and the strength of the wire were never disclosed, but the visual shows that it is a fine mail with rings of an inner diameter of less than 0.8 cm. The rivet heads are probably located only on the visible outer side, the direction of overlap of the riveted rings is counterclockwise.

The shape and size of the lump corresponds to the placement in the helmet dome. At the same time, the size and weight suggest that the armour was small in size and was limited mainly to the torso and, theoreticky, upper arms.

The mail from Stromovka. Source: Bravermanová et al. 2019: 276, Obr. 63.

The mail from Stromovka. Source:

Tiny mail fragments of the hoard may come from aventails. At one of the helmets (Stromovka II), a part of a corroded aventail was found inside the dome. The inner diameters of the rings measure 0.45-0.5 cm with a wire thickness of 0.1 cm (personal interview with Miloš Bernart). The aventail thus seems to be made of finer rings than the body mail.

The remains of aventail of Stromovka II helmet. Source: Bernart 2010: Obr. 32.


Due to the nature of the find, the hoard has long been dated between 7th-12th century in the past (Hejdová 1964: 49-54; Klučina – Marsina – Romaňák 1985: 70). It is no longer possible to support such dating. With the growing body of helmets (Kainov 2019: 189-191, Рис. 71; Macháček et al. 2021: 160, 440, 670; Pieta 2015: 27-30, Obr. 17.1-2; Macků – Pilná 2021) it is shown that the dating of this group narrows to the 3rd third of the 9th century and the 1st half of the 10th century, as noted by Profantová (2016: 134). Helmets can be classified in the late Great Moravian period and After-Great Moravian horizon. The armour thus reflects the Central European protective equipment around the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.

Equestrian scene from the manuscript Leiden, UBL, Cod. Perizoni F.17, 15v, dated to the first two decades of the 10th century. The armour shown may correspond in size to the find from Stromovka.

Here we will finish this article. Thank you for your time and we look forward to any feedback. If you want to learn more and support my work, please, fund my project on Patreon or Paypal.


Bernart, Miloš (2010). Raně středověké přílby, zbroje a štíty z Českých zemí, Praha: Univerzita Karlova

Bravermanová, M. – Havlínová, A. – Ledvina, P. – Perlík, D. (2019). Nová zjištění o přilbě a zbroji zv. svatováclavské. In: Archeologie ve středních Čechách 23, 235–310.

Hejdová, Dagmar (1964). Přilba zvaná „svatováclavská“. In: Sborník Národního muzea v Praze, A 18, no. 1–2, 1–106.

Kainov 2019 = Каинов, С. Ю. (2019). Сложение комплекса вооружения Древней Руси X – начала XI в. (по материалам Гнёздовского некрополя и поселения). Диссертация на соискание ученой степени кандидата исторических наук, Том I, Москва. 7

Klučina, P. – Marsina, R. – Romaňák, A. (1985). Vojenské dějiny Československa, 1. díl (do roku 1526), Praha.

Macháček et al. (2021). Břeclav – Pohansko X. Sídelní areál na Severovýchodním předhradí. Archeologické výzkumy v letech 2008-2016, Brno.

Macků, Pavel – Pilná, Veronika (2021). An early-medieval helmet of the Stromovka-Gnezdovo-Bojná type from the collections of the Kozel chateau. In: Archaeologia historica 46, 2, 445-466.

Pieta, Karol (2015). Včasnostredoveké mocenské centrum Bojná – výskumy v rokoch 2007–2013. In: Pieta, K. – Robak, Z. (eds.). Bojná 2 – Nové výsledky výskumov včasnostredovekých hradísk, Nitra, 9–49.

Profantová, Naďa (2016). Chronologie časně slovanského a starohradištního osídlení Čech na příkladu Prahy a jejího zázemí. In: Boháčová, I. – Šmolíková, M. (eds.). Praha archeologická, Praha, 129-146.

Šnajdrová, Evženie (2014). Arma ofensiva et defensiva. Historické zbraně a zbroj ze sbírky Národního muzea, Praha.

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